• Deconstructing the relative benefits of a universal glove and gown intervention on MRSA acquisition

      Harris, A.D.; Morgan, D.J.; Pineles, L. (W.B. Saunders Ltd, 2017)
      BACKGROUND: The 20-site Benefits of Universal Glove and Gown (BUGG) study found that wearing gloves and gowns for all patient contacts in the intensive care unit (ICU) reduced acquisition rates of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The relative importance of gloves and gowns as a barrier, improved hand hygiene, and reduced healthcare worker (HCW)-patient contact rates is unknown. AIM: To determine what proportion of the reduction in acquisition rates observed in the BUGG study was due to improved hand hygiene, reduced contact rates, and universal glove and gown use using agent-based simulation modelling. METHODS: An existing agent-based model to simulate MRSA transmission dynamics in an ICU was modified, and the model was calibrated using site-specific data. Model validation was completed using data collected in the BUGG study. A full 2k factorial design was conducted to quantify the relative benefits of improving each of the aforementioned factors with respect to MRSA acquisition rates. FINDINGS: Across 40 simulated replications for each factorial design point and intervention site, approximately 44% of the decrease in MRSA acquisition rates was due to universal glove and gown use, 38.1% of the decrease was due to improvement in hand hygiene compliance on exiting patient rooms, and 14.5% of the decrease was due to the reduction in HCW-patient contact rates. CONCLUSION: Using mathematical modelling, the decrease in MRSA acquisition in the BUGG study was found to be due primarily to the barrier effects of gowns and gloves, followed by improved hand hygiene and lower HCW-patient contact rates.