• Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Adherence and Treatment Cost in Patients With Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Cardiovascular Disease.

      Bock, Joshua M; Needham, Keith A; Gregory, David A; Ekono, Mercedes M; Wickwire, Emerson M; Somers, Virend K; Lerman, Amir (Elsevier, 2022-04-04)
      Objective: To determine whether continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) adherence reduces health care-related costs or use in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and comorbid cardiovascular disease (CVD). Patients: A total of 23 million patients with CVD were identified in the Medicare fee-for-service database. Of the 65,198 who completed a sleep study between January 2016 and September 2018, 55,125 were diagnosed as having OSA and 1758 were identified in the 5% Medicare durable medical equipment (DME) database. Methods: Patients with DME claims were categorized as adherent (AD, treatment evidenced ≥91 days after CPAP initiation; n=614) or nonadherent (nAD, n=242) to CPAP therapy. In addition, 9881 individuals with CVD who were not diagnosed as having OSA after sleep testing and without CPAP initiation were included as control patients. Propensity score matching balanced the groups for age, sex, and comorbidities (eg, diabetes mellitus), resulting in 241 participants per cohort. Dependent variables included total episode-of-care, inpatient, outpatient, skilled nursing, home health, and DME costs across 12 months. Results: Total episode-of-care costs of AD participants ($6825) were lower than those of nAD ($11,312; P<.05) and control ($8102) participants. This difference (Δ) was attributable to fewer outpatient expenses (Δ$2290; P<.05) relative to the nAD group and fewer inpatient expenses (Δ$745) relative to the control group because skilled nursing costs were comparable between groups (P=.73). Conclusion: Adherence to CPAP treatment reduces annual health care-related expenses by 40% in Medicare patients with CVD and OSA.