• A systematic review of metabolomic and lipidomic candidates for biomarkers in radiation injury

      Vicente, E.; Vujaskovic, Z.; Jackson, I.L. (MDPI AG, 2020)
      A large-scale nuclear event has the ability to inflict mass casualties requiring point-of-care and laboratory-based diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers to inform victim triage and appropriate medical intervention. Extensive progress has been made to develop post-exposure point-of-care biodosimetry assays and to identify biomarkers that may be used in early phase testing to predict the course of the disease. Screening for biomarkers has recently extended to identify specific metabolomic and lipidomic responses to radiation using animal models. The objective of this review was to determine which metabolites or lipids most frequently experienced perturbations postionizing irradiation (IR) in preclinical studies using animal models of acute radiation sickness (ARS) and delayed effects of acute radiation exposure (DEARE). Upon review of approximately 65 manuscripts published in the peer-reviewed literature, the most frequently referenced metabolites showing clear changes in IR induced injury were found to be citrulline, citric acid, creatine, taurine, carnitine, xanthine, creatinine, hypoxanthine, uric acid, and threonine. Each metabolite was evaluated by specific study parameters to determine whether trends were in agreement across several studies. A select few show agreement across variable animal models, IR doses and timepoints, indicating that they may be ubiquitous and appropriate for use in diagnostic or prognostic biomarker panels. Copyright 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.