• Exercise with weight loss improves adipose tissue and skeletal muscle markers of fatty acid metabolism in postmenopausal women

      Ortmeyer, H.K.; Goldberg, A.P.; Ryan, A.S. (Blackwell Publishing Inc., 2017)
      Objective: The effects of 6-month weight loss (WL) versus aerobic exercise training (AEX)+WL on fat and skeletal muscle markers of fatty acid metabolism were determined in normal (NGT) and impaired (IGT) glucose tolerant African-American and Caucasian postmenopausal women with overweight/obesity. Methods: Fat (gluteal and abdominal) lipoprotein lipase (LPL), skeletal muscle LPL, acyl-CoA synthase (ACS), ß‐hydroxacyl‐CoA dehydrogenase, carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT-1), and citrate synthase (CS) activities were measured at baseline (n = 104) and before and after WL (n = 34) and AEX+WL (n = 37). Results: After controlling for age and race, muscle LPL and CPT-1 were lower in IGT, and the ratios of fat/muscle LPL activity were higher in IGT compared to NGT. Muscle LPL was related to insulin sensitivity (M value) and inversely related to G120, fasting insulin, and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance. AEX+WL decreased abdominal fat LPL and increased muscle LPL, ACS, and CS. The ratios of fat/muscle LPL decreased after AEX+WL. The change in VO2max was related to the changes in LPL, ACS, and CS and inversely related to the changes in fat/muscle LPL activity ratios. Conclusions: Six-month AEX+WL, and not WL alone, is capable of enhancing skeletal muscle fatty acid metabolism in postmenopausal African-American and Caucasian women with NGT, IGT, and overweight/obesity.
    • Multi-ancestry study of blood lipid levels identifies four loci interacting with physical activity

      Bentley, A.R.; Noordam, R.; Kilpeläinen, T.O. (Nature Publishing Group, 2019)
      Many genetic loci affect circulating lipid levels, but it remains unknown whether lifestyle factors, such as physical activity, modify these genetic effects. To identify lipid loci interacting with physical activity, we performed genome-wide analyses of circulating HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglyceride levels in up to 120,979 individuals of European, African, Asian, Hispanic, and Brazilian ancestry, with follow-up of suggestive associations in an additional 131,012 individuals. We find four loci, in/near CLASP1, LHX1, SNTA1, and CNTNAP2, that are associated with circulating lipid levels through interaction with physical activity; higher levels of physical activity enhance the HDL cholesterol-increasing effects of the CLASP1, LHX1, and SNTA1 loci and attenuate the LDL cholesterol-increasing effect of the CNTNAP2 locus. The CLASP1, LHX1, and SNTA1 regions harbor genes linked to muscle function and lipid metabolism. Our results elucidate the role of physical activity interactions in the genetic contribution to blood lipid levels. Copyright 2019, The Author(s).