• The Association of ICU Acuity With Adherence to ICU Evidence-Based Processes of Care

      Vranas, Kelly C; Scott, Jennifer Y; Badawi, Omar; Harhay, Michael O; Slatore, Christopher G; Sullivan, Donald R; Kerlin, Meeta Prasad (Elsevier Inc, 2020-03-27)
      Background: Admission to high-acuity ICUs has been associated with improved outcomes compared with outcomes in low-acuity ICUs, although the mechanism for these findings is unclear. Research Question: The goal of this study was to determine if high-acuity ICUs more effectively implement evidence-based processes of care that have been associated with improved clinical outcomes. Study Design and Methods: This retrospective cohort study was performed in adult ICU patients admitted to 322 ICUs in 199 hospitals in the Philips ICU telemedicine database between 2010 and 2015. The primary exposure was ICU acuity, defined as the mean Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation IVa score of all admitted patients in a calendar year, stratified into quartiles. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine relations of ICU acuity with adherence to evidence-based VTE and stress ulcer prophylaxis, and with the avoidance of potentially harmful events. These events included hypoglycemia, sustained hyperglycemia, and liberal transfusion practices (defined as RBC transfusions prescribed for nonbleeding patients with preceding hemoglobin levels ≥ 7 g/dL). Results: Among 1,058,510 ICU admissions, adherence to VTE and stress ulcer prophylaxis was high across acuity levels. In adjusted analyses, those admitted to low-acuity ICUs compared with the highest acuity ICUs were more likely to experience hypoglycemic events (adjusted OR [aOR], 1.12; 95% CI, 1.04-1.19), sustained hyperglycemia (aOR, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.04-1.10), and liberal transfusion practices (aOR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.33-1.82). Interpretation: High-acuity ICUs were associated with better adherence to several evidence-based practices, which may be a marker of high-quality care. Future research should investigate how high-acuity ICUs approach ICU organization to identify targets for improving the quality of critical care across all ICU acuity levels.
    • Prevalence of chronic liver disease in patients with COVID-19 and their clinical outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis

      Kovalic, Alexander J.; Satapathy, Sanjaya K.; Thuluvath, Paul J. (Springer Nature, 2020-07-28)
      Abnormal liver enzymes are seen in 20% of hospitalized patients with COVID-19. The etiology of elevated liver enzymes is thought to be multifactorial including medications and underlying liver disease. The true prevalence and clinical significance of underlying chronic liver diseases (CLD) in COVID-19 remains poorly defined. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we included 74 clinical studies that were identified after a thorough literature search across three databases. The prevalence of CLD patients (73 studies, 24,299 patients) was 3% among all COVID-19 patients. The prevalence of CLD patients was similar in COVID-19 positive and negative population (pooled OR 0.79 [95% CI 0.60, 1.05], p = 0.10). The presence of CLD was significantly associated with more severe COVID-19 infection (pooled OR 1.48 [95% CI 1.17, 1.87], p = 0.001) and overall mortality (pooled OR 1.78 [95% CI 1.09, 2.93], p = 0.02). Additionally, there was a non-significant trend noted for increased ICU admissions and need for invasive mechanical ventilation among COVID-19 patients with CLD. To date, the clinical importance of chronic liver diseases among COVID-19 infection has remained undefined. In this novel systematic review and meta-analysis, the presence of underlying chronic liver disease was significantly associated with more severe COVID-19 infections and mortality.