• An antibiotic stewardship program blueprint for optimizing verigene bc-gn within an institution: A tale of two cities

      Pogue, J.M.; Heil, E.L.; Lephart, P. (American Society for Microbiology, 2018)
      Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) have revolutionized the management of Gram-negative bacteremia by allowing antimicrobial stewardship teams the ability to escalate therapy and improve patient outcomes through timely organism identification and detection of certain resistance determinants. However, given the complex nature of Gram-negative resistance, stewardship teams are left without clear direction for how to respond when resistance determinants are absent, as the safety of de-escalation in this setting is unknown. The primary purpose of this analysis was to determine the negative predictive values (NPVs) of resistance marker absence for predicting susceptibility in target bug-drug scenarios at two geographically distinct institutions. A total of 1,046 Gram-negative bloodstream isolates that were analyzed with the Verigene BC-GN platform were assessed. Except for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the absence of resistance determinants as reported by the RDT largely predicted susceptibility to target antibiotics at both institutions. NPVs for ceftriaxone susceptibility in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae in the absence of either CTX-M or a carbapenemase gene were 98% and 93 to 94%, respectively. Similar results were seen with other target bug-drug scenarios, with NPVs of 94 to 100% demonstrated at both institutions, with the exception of P. aeruginosa, for which NPVs were poor, likely due to the more complex nature of resistance in this pathogen. The results of this study show that clinicians at both institutions should have confidence in de-escalation in the absence of resistance determinant detection by Verigene BC-GN testing, and the methodology described within this article can serve as a blueprint for other stewardship programs to employ at their institutions to optimize management of Gram-negative bacteremia. Copyright Copyright 2018 American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
    • CXC chemokines exhibit bactericidal activity against multidrug-resistant gram-negative pathogens

      Crawford, M.A.; Fisher, D.J.; Leung, L.M. (American Society for Microbiology, 2017)
      The continued rise and spread of antimicrobial resistance among bacterial pathogens pose a serious challenge to global health. Countering antimicrobialresistant pathogens requires a multifaceted effort that includes the discovery of novel therapeutic approaches. Here, we establish the capacity of the human CXC chemokines CXCL9 and CXCL10 to kill multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria, including New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase-1-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae and colistin-resistant members of the family Enterobacteriaceae that harbor the mobile colistin resistance protein MCR-1 and thus possess phosphoethanolamine-modified lipid A. Colistin-resistant K. pneumoniae isolates affected by genetic mutation of the PmrA/PmrB two-component system, a chromosomally encoded regulator of lipopolysaccharide modification, and containing 4-amino-4-deoxy-L-arabinose-modified lipid A were also found to be susceptible to chemokine-mediated antimicrobial activity. However, loss of PhoP/PhoQ autoregulatory control, caused by disruption of the gene encoding the negative regulator MgrB, limited the bactericidal effects of CXCL9 and CXCL10 in a variable, strain-specific manner. Cumulatively, these findings provide mechanistic insight into chemokine-mediated antimicrobial activity, highlight disparities amongst determinants of colistin resistance, and suggest that chemokine-mediated bactericidal effects merit additional investigation as a therapeutic avenue for treating infections caused by multidrug-resistant pathogens. IMPORTANCE As bacterial pathogens become resistant to multiple antibiotics, the infections they cause become increasingly difficult to treat. Carbapenem antibiotics provide an essential clinical barrier against multidrug-resistant bacteria; however, the dissemination of bacterial enzymes capable of inactivating carbapenems threatens the utility of these important antibiotics. Compounding this concern is the global spread of bacteria invulnerable to colistin, a polymyxin antibiotic considered to be a last line of defense against carbapenem-resistant pathogens. As the effectiveness of existing antibiotics erodes, it is critical to develop innovative antimicrobial therapies. To this end, we demonstrate that the chemokines CXCL9 and CXCL10 kill the most concerning carbapenem- and colistin-resistant pathogens. Our findings provide aunique and timely foundation for therapeutic strategies capable of countering antibiotic-resistant "superbugs." Copyright 2017 Crawford et al.