• C4d in Native Glomerular Diseases

      Chandra, P. (S. Karger AG, 2019)
      Complement activation occurs in many glomerular diseases, the exact pathway(s) of activation has been studied in detail in some diseases but not in all. C4d is generated by the activation of classical and lectin pathways, and its presence can point to the activation of either of these pathways. This review aims to summarize the available data with regard to the deposition of glomerular C4d in native kidney biopsies in different glomerular pathologies that may be useful for future research into the role of complement activation in glomerular diseases. While there is more information on C4d in certain diseases (e.g., Immunoglobulin A (IgA) nephropathy), there is scant data in other diseases (such as focal segmental glomerulosclerosis).