• Cardiac function assessed by myocardial deformation in adult polycystic kidney disease patients

      Watnick, T.; Seliger, S.L.; Chen, H.; Sawan, M.A.; Nguyen, D.; Li, Y.; Hong, S.N. (BioMed Central Ltd., 2019)
      Background: Patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) have an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Impaired left ventricular (LV) global longitudinal strain (GLS) can be a sign of subclinical cardiac dysfunction even in patients with otherwise preserved ejection fraction (EF). Transmitral early filling velocity to early diastolic strain rate (E/SRe) is a novel measure of LV filling pressure, which is often affected early in cardiac disease. Methods: A total of 110 ADPKD patients not on dialysis were included in this prospective study. All patients underwent an extensive echocardiographic examination including two-dimensional speckle tracking. GLS and strain rates were measured. The distribution of GLS and E/SRe was determined and patient characteristics were compared by median levels of GLS (- 17.8%) and E/SRe (91.4 cm). Twenty healthy participants were included as control group. Results: There was a significantly worse GLS in the ADPKD patients (mean: - 17.8 ± 2.5%) compared to the healthy controls (mean: - 21.9 ± 1.9%), p < 0.001. The same was true for E/SRe (mean: 10.0 ± 0.3 cm) compared to the control group (mean: 6.5 ± 0.3 cm), p < 0.001. In simple logistic regression, male gender (OR: 4.74 [2.10-10.71], p < 0.001), fasting glucose (odds ratio (OR) 1.05 [1.01-1.10], p = 0.024), htTKV (OR: 1.07 [1.01-1.13], p = 0.013), HDL cholesterol (OR: 0.97 [0.94, 0.996], p = 0.025), triglycerides (OR: 1.01 [1.00-1.02], p = 0.039), hemoglobin (OR: 1.50 [1.11-2.04], p = 0.009), and β-blocker use (OR: 1.07 [1.01, 1.13], p = 0.013) were all associated with higher GLS. After multivariate logistic regression with backward model selection, only male gender (OR: 5.78 [2.27-14.71], p < 0.001) and β-blocker use (OR: 14.00 [1.60, 122.51], p = 0.017) remained significant. In simple logistic regression models, BMI (OR: 1.11 [1.02-1.20], p = 0.015), systolic blood pressure (OR: 1.03 [1.00-1.06], p = 0.027) and β-blocker use (OR: 17.12 [2.15-136.20], p = 0.007) were associated with higher E/SRe - a novel measure of left ventricular filling pressure. After backward elimination, only β-blocker use (OR: 17.22 [2.16, 137.14], p = 0.007) remained significant. Conclusion: Higher GLS and E/SRe are common in ADPKD patients, even in patients with preserved eGFR and normal left ventricular EF. GLS and E/SRe may aid in cardiovascular risk stratification in patients with ADPKD as they represent early markers of cardiac dysfunction. Copyright 2019 The Author(s).