• Achieving global equity for COVID-19 vaccines: Stronger international partnerships and greater advocacy and solidarity are needed.

      Figueroa, J Peter; Hotez, Peter J; Batista, Carolina; Ben Amor, Yanis; Ergonul, Onder; Gilbert, Sarah; Gursel, Mayda; Hassanain, Mazen; Kang, Gagandeep; Kaslow, David C; et al. (Public Library of Science, 2021-09-13)
      Peter Figueroa and co-authors advocate for equity in the worldwide provision of COVID-19 vaccines.
    • Beyond the jab: A need for global coordination of pharmacovigilance for COVID-19 vaccine deployment

      Naniche, Denise; Hotez, Peter; Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Ergonul, Onder; Figueroa, J Peter; Gilbert, Sarah; Gursel, Mayda; Hassanain, Mazen; Kang, Gagandeep; Kaslow, David; et al. (Elsevier Ltd., 2021-06-03)
    • Cost-effectiveness of infant respiratory syncytial virus preventive interventions in Mali: A modeling study to inform policy and investment decisions

      Laufer, Rachel S; Driscoll, Amanda J; Baral, Ranju; Buchwald, Andrea G; Campbell, James D; Coulibaly, Flanon; Diallo, Fatoumata; Doumbia, Moussa; Galvani, Alison P; Haidara, Fadima C; et al. (Elsevier Ltd., 2021-07-26)
      Importance: Low- and middle-income countries have a high burden of respiratory syncytial virus lower respiratory tract infections. A monoclonal antibody administered monthly is licensed to prevent these infections, but it is cost-prohibitive for most low- and middle-income countries. Long-acting monoclonal antibodies and maternal vaccines against respiratory syncytial virus are under development. Objective: We estimated the likelihood of respiratory syncytial virus preventive interventions (current monoclonal antibody, long-acting monoclonal antibody, and maternal vaccine) being cost-effective in Mali. Design: We modeled age-specific and season-specific risks of respiratory syncytial virus lower respiratory tract infections within monthly cohorts of infants from birth to six months. We parameterized with respiratory syncytial virus data from Malian cohort studies, as well as product efficacy from clinical trials. Integrating parameter uncertainty, we simulated health and economic outcomes for status quo without prevention, intra-seasonal monthly administration of licensed monoclonal antibody, pre-seasonal birth dose administration of a long-acting monoclonal antibody, and maternal vaccination. We then calculated the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of each intervention compared to status quo from the perspectives of the government, donor, and society. Results: At a price of $3 per dose and from the societal perspective, current monoclonal antibody, long-acting monoclonal antibody, and maternal vaccine would have incremental cost-effectiveness ratios of $4280 (95% CI $1892 to $122,434), $1656 (95% CI $734 to $9091), and $8020 (95% CI $3501 to $47,047) per disability-adjusted life-year averted, respectively. Conclusions and Relevance: In Mali, long-acting monoclonal antibody is likely to be cost-effective from both the government and donor perspectives at $3 per dose. Maternal vaccine would need higher efficacy over that measured by a recent trial in order to be considered cost-effective. © 2021 The Authors
    • Early childhood developmental disabilities-data still needed

      Black, M.M.; Lawn, J.E. (Elsevier Ltd, 2018)
    • Getting Started in Global Health: A Practical Guide for Gastroenterology Fellows

      Chudy-Onwugaje, Kenechukwu (Wolters Kluwer Health, 2021-01-07)
    • Global Critical Care: Moving Forward in Resource-Limited Settings

      Diaz, J.V.; Riviello, E.D.; Papali, A. (Ubiquity Press, 2019)
      Caring for critically ill patients is challenging in resource-limited settings, where the burden of disease and mortality from potentially treatable illnesses is higher than in resource-rich areas. Barriers to delivering quality critical care in these settings include lack of epidemiologic data and context-specific evidence for medical decision-making, deficiencies in health systems organization and resources, and institutional obstacles to implementation of life-saving interventions. Potential solutions include the development of common definitions for intensive care unit (ICU), intensivist, and intensive care to create a universal ICU organization framework; development of educational programs for capacity building of health care professionals working in resource-limited settings; global prioritization of epidemiologic and clinical research in resource-limited settings to conduct timely and ethical studies in response to emerging threats; adaptation of international guidelines to promote implementation of evidence-based care; and strengthening of health systems that integrates these interventions. This manuscript reviews the field of global critical care, barriers to safe high-quality care, and potential solutions to existing challenges. We also suggest a roadmap for improving the treatment of critically ill patients in resource-limited settings. © 2019 The Author(s). This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC-BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.
    • Global prevalence of hepatitis C virus in women of childbearing age in 2019: a modelling study

      Dugan, Ellen; Blach, Sarah; Biondi, Mia; Cai, Zongzhen; DePaola, Mindi; Estes, Chris; Feld, Jordan; Gamkrelidze, Ivane; Kottilil, Shyamasundaran; Ma, Siya; et al. (Elsevier Ltd., 2021-03-01)
      Background: Treatment for infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) during pregnancy has not yet been approved; however, interventions specifically targeting women, especially those of childbearing age (15–49 years), could prevent vertical transmission and community spread. To assess the impact of such interventions, improved prevalence estimates in this group are needed. We aimed to estimate the global prevalence of viraemic HCV in 2019 among women of childbearing age. Methods: In this modelling study, we used previously developed models for 110 countries inputted with country-specific demographic and HCV epidemiology data. We did a literature review, searching PubMed, Embase, and grey literature for studies published between Jan 1, 2000, and June 30, 2018, reporting HCV antibody or viraemic prevalence in women of childbearing age. Studies from the literature review and studies in models were compared by use of a data quality scoring system and models were updated, as appropriate, when a better study was identified. We used these HCV disease burden models to calculate the 2019 prevalence of viraemic HCV in women of childbearing age. In countries without a model, prevalence was extrapolated by Global Burden of Disease (GBD) region. Findings: An estimated 14 860 000 (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 9 667 000–18 282 000) women aged 15–49 years had HCV infection worldwide in 2019, corresponding to a viraemic prevalence of 0·78% (95% UI 0·62–0·86). Globally, HCV prevalence increased with age, rising from 0·25% (95% UI 0·20–0·27) in women aged 15–19 years to 1·21% (0·97–1·34) in women aged 45–49 years. China (16% of total infections) and Pakistan (15%) had the greatest numbers of viraemic infections, but viraemic prevalence was highest in Mongolia (5·14%, 95% CI 3·46–6·28) and Burundi (4·91%, 3·80–18·75). Of the countries with 500 cases or more, viraemic prevalence was lowest in Chile (0·07%, 95% UI 0·04–0·12). Among the GBD regions, eastern Europe had the highest viraemic prevalence (3·39%, 95% UI 1·88–3·54). By WHO region, the Eastern Mediterranean region had the highest viraemic prevalence (1·75%, 95% UI 1·26– 1·90). Interpretation: Most research on HCV disease burden among women aged 15–49 years focuses on pregnant women. Using modelling, this analysis provides global and national estimates of HCV prevalence in all women of childbearing age. These data can inform preconception test-and-treat strategies to reduce vertical transmission and total disease burden. Funding: Gilead Sciences, John C Martin Foundation, private donors.
    • Measuring progress from 1990 to 2017 and projecting attainment to 2030 of the health-related Sustainable Development Goals for 195 countries and territories: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017

      Ortiz, Justin R.; Lozano, R; GBD 2017 SDG Collaborators (Lancet Publishing Group, 2018-11-10)
      Background: Efforts to establish the 2015 baseline and monitor early implementation of the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) highlight both great potential for and threats to improving health by 2030. To fully deliver on the SDG aim of “leaving no one behind”, it is increasingly important to examine the health-related SDGs beyond national-level estimates. As part of the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2017 (GBD 2017), we measured progress on 41 of 52 health-related SDG indicators and estimated the health-related SDG index for 195 countries and territories for the period 1990–2017, projected indicators to 2030, and analysed global attainment. Methods: We measured progress on 41 health-related SDG indicators from 1990 to 2017, an increase of four indicators since GBD 2016 (new indicators were health worker density, sexual violence by non-intimate partners, population census status, and prevalence of physical and sexual violence [reported separately]). We also improved the measurement of several previously reported indicators. We constructed national-level estimates and, for a subset of health-related SDGs, examined indicator-level differences by sex and Socio-demographic Index (SDI) quintile. We also did subnational assessments of performance for selected countries. To construct the health-related SDG index, we transformed the value for each indicator on a scale of 0–100, with 0 as the 2·5th percentile and 100 as the 97·5th percentile of 1000 draws calculated from 1990 to 2030, and took the geometric mean of the scaled indicators by target. To generate projections through 2030, we used a forecasting framework that drew estimates from the broader GBD study and used weighted averages of indicator-specific and country-specific annualised rates of change from 1990 to 2017 to inform future estimates. We assessed attainment of indicators with defined targets in two ways: first, using mean values projected for 2030, and then using the probability of attainment in 2030 calculated from 1000 draws. We also did a global attainment analysis of the feasibility of attaining SDG targets on the basis of past trends. Using 2015 global averages of indicators with defined SDG targets, we calculated the global annualised rates of change required from 2015 to 2030 to meet these targets, and then identified in what percentiles the required global annualised rates of change fell in the distribution of country-level rates of change from 1990 to 2015. We took the mean of these global percentile values across indicators and applied the past rate of change at this mean global percentile to all health-related SDG indicators, irrespective of target definition, to estimate the equivalent 2030 global average value and percentage change from 2015 to 2030 for each indicator. Findings: The global median health-related SDG index in 2017 was 59·4 (IQR 35·4–67·3), ranging from a low of 11·6 (95% uncertainty interval 9·6–14·0) to a high of 84·9 (83·1–86·7). SDG index values in countries assessed at the subnational level varied substantially, particularly in China and India, although scores in Japan and the UK were more homogeneous. Indicators also varied by SDI quintile and sex, with males having worse outcomes than females for non-communicable disease (NCD) mortality, alcohol use, and smoking, among others. Most countries were projected to have a higher health-related SDG index in 2030 than in 2017, while country-level probabilities of attainment by 2030 varied widely by indicator. Under-5 mortality, neonatal mortality, maternal mortality ratio, and malaria indicators had the most countries with at least 95% probability of target attainment. Other indicators, including NCD mortality and suicide mortality, had no countries projected to meet corresponding SDG targets on the basis of projected mean values for 2030 but showed some probability of attainment by 2030. For some indicators, including child malnutrition, several infectious diseases, and most violence measures, the annualised rates of change required to meet SDG targets far exceeded the pace of progress achieved by any country in the recent past. We found that applying the mean global annualised rate of change to indicators without defined targets would equate to about 19% and 22% reductions in global smoking and alcohol consumption, respectively; a 47% decline in adolescent birth rates; and a more than 85% increase in health worker density per 1000 population by 2030. Interpretation: The GBD study offers a unique, robust platform for monitoring the health-related SDGs across demographic and geographic dimensions. Our findings underscore the importance of increased collection and analysis of disaggregated data and highlight where more deliberate design or targeting of interventions could accelerate progress in attaining the SDGs. Current projections show that many health-related SDG indicators, NCDs, NCD-related risks, and violence-related indicators will require a concerted shift away from what might have driven past gains—curative interventions in the case of NCDs—towards multisectoral, prevention-oriented policy action and investments to achieve SDG aims. Notably, several targets, if they are to be met by 2030, demand a pace of progress that no country has achieved in the recent past. The future is fundamentally uncertain, and no model can fully predict what breakthroughs or events might alter the course of the SDGs. What is clear is that our actions—or inaction—today will ultimately dictate how close the world, collectively, can get to leaving no one behind by 2030. Funding: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open Access article under the CC BY 4.0 license
    • Not above the law: A legal and ethical analysis of short-term experiences in global health

      Rowthorn, V.; Loh, L.; Evert, J. (Ubiquity Press, 2019)
      Background: Persons from high-income countries have multiple opportunities today to participate in “short-term experiences in global health” (STEGHs) in low-resourced countries. STEGHs are organized through religious missions, service learning, medical internships, global health education, and international electives. An issue of increasing concern in STEGHs is “hands-on” participation in clinical procedures by volunteers and students with limited or no medical training. To address these concerns, best practices and ethical standards have been developed. However, not all STEGH organizations adhere to these guidelines, and some actively or tacitly allow unethical and potentially illegal practices. Objectives: This paper considers the legal framework within which STEGHs operate. It assesses whether certain STEGH practices break laws in the US and/or host countries or violate international “soft” legal norms. Two activities of particular concern are: practicing medicine without a license and drug importation and distribution. Conclusions: Many activities undertaken in STEGHs would be illegal if they took place on US soil. In addition, these same activities are often illegal in the host countries where STEGHs operate, although compliance is unevenly enforced. Many STEGH activities violate World Health Organization guidelines for ethical conduct in humanitarian activities. Recommendations: This paper encourages STEGH organizations to end unethical and potentially illegal activities; urges regulatory and non-regulatory stakeholders to alter policies that motivate participation in illegal or unethical STEGH activities; and encourages host countries to enforce their local and national health laws. Copyright 2019 The Author(s).
    • Opportunities and Challenges in North-South and South-South Global Health Collaborations During the COVID-19 Pandemic: The AFREhealth-CUGH Experience (as Reported at the CUGH 2021 Satellite Meeting)

      Eichbaum, Quentin; Sam-Agudu, Nadia A; Kazembe, Abigail; Kiguli-Malwadde, Elsie; Khanyola, Judy; Wasserheit, Judith N; Kilmarx, Peter H; Nachega, Jean B (Ubiquity Press, 2021-09-09)
      Sustainable and equitable partnerships and collaborations between the Global North and Global South (as well as within the Global South) have been aspirations (if seldom achieved) of the "global health" endeavor over the past couple of decades. The COVID-19 pandemic led to global lockdowns that disrupted international travel and severely challenged these partnerships, providing a critical space for self-reflection on global health as a discipline. One major global north-south partnership is that between the African Forum for Research and Education in Health (AFREhealth) and the Consortium of Universities for Global Health (CUGH). This article reports on a recent Satellite meeting of the AFREhealth-CUGH Working Group (ACWG) at the CUGH 2021 virtual conference in March 2021 that provided insights on North-South and South-South global health partnerships, against the backdrop of the COVID-19 pandemic. The authors describe challenges and opportunities for research and education in these partnerships (as discussed at this ACWG Satellite meeting), and implications for the field of global health going forward as we emerge from the pandemic.
    • A pandemic recap: lessons we have learned

      Coccolini, Federico; Cicuttin, Enrico; Cremonini, Camilla; Tartaglia, Dario; Viaggi, Bruno; Kuriyama, Akira; Picetti, Edoardo; Ball, Chad; Abu-Zidan, Fikri; Ceresoli, Marco; et al. (Springer Nature, 2021-09-10)
      On January 2020, the WHO Director General declared that the outbreak constitutes a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. The world has faced a worldwide spread crisis and is still dealing with it. The present paper represents a white paper concerning the tough lessons we have learned from the COVID-19 pandemic. Thus, an international and heterogenous multidisciplinary panel of very differentiated people would like to share global experiences and lessons with all interested and especially those responsible for future healthcare decision making. With the present paper, international and heterogenous multidisciplinary panel of very differentiated people would like to share global experiences and lessons with all interested and especially those responsible for future healthcare decision making.
    • Tackling malaria transmission in sub-Saharan Africa

      Cohee, L.; Laufer, Miriam K. (Elsevier Ltd, 2018)
    • Using scientific authorship criteria as a tool for equitable inclusion in global health research

      Sam-Agudu, Nadia Adjoa; Abimbola, Seye (BMJ Publishing Group, 2021-10-13)
    • 'You want to deal with power while riding on power': global perspectives on power in participatory health research and co-production approaches

      Egid, Beatrice R; Roura, María; Aktar, Bachera; Amegee Quach, Jessica; Chumo, Ivy; Dias, Sónia; Hegel, Guillermo; Jones, Laundette; Karuga, Robinson; Lar, Luret; et al. (BMJ Publishing Group, 2021-11-11)
      INTRODUCTION: Power relations permeate research partnerships and compromise the ability of participatory research approaches to bring about transformational and sustainable change. This study aimed to explore how participatory health researchers engaged in co-production research perceive and experience 'power', and how it is discussed and addressed within the context of research partnerships. METHODS: Five online workshops were carried out with participatory health researchers working in different global contexts. Transcripts of the workshops were analysed thematically against the 'Social Ecology of Power' framework and mapped at the micro (individual), meso (interpersonal) or macro (structural) level. RESULTS: A total of 59 participants, with participatory experience in 24 different countries, attended the workshops. At the micro level, key findings included the rarity of explicit discussions on the meaning and impact of power, the use of reflexivity for examining assumptions and power differentials, and the perceived importance of strengthening co-researcher capacity to shift power. At the meso level, participants emphasised the need to manage co-researcher expectations, create spaces for trusted dialogue, and consider the potential risks faced by empowered community partners. Participants were divided over whether gatekeeper engagement aided the research process or acted to exclude marginalised groups from participating. At the macro level, colonial and 'traditional' research legacies were acknowledged to have generated and maintained power inequities within research partnerships. CONCLUSIONS: The 'Social Ecology of Power' framework is a useful tool for engaging with power inequities that cut across the social ecology, highlighting how they can operate at the micro, meso and macro level. This study reiterates that power is pervasive, and that while many researchers are intentional about engaging with power, actions and available tools must be used more systematically to identify and address power imbalances in participatory research partnerships, in order to contribute to improved equity and social justice outcomes.