• Expression of AR-V7 (Androgen receptor variant 7) protein in granular cytoplasmic structures is an independent prognostic factor in prostate cancer patients

      König, Paul; Eckstein, Markus; Jung, Rudolf; Abdulrahman, Amer; Guzman, Juan; Weigelt, Katrin; Serrero, Ginette; Hayashi, Jun; Geppert, Carol; Stöhr, Robert; et al. (MDPI AG, 2020-09-01)
      Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second most common cancer, causing morbidity and mortality among men world-wide. The expression of the androgen receptor (AR) and its splice variants is a crucial factor of prostate cancer biology that has not been comprehensively studied in PCa tumors. The aim of this study was to characterize the protein expression of the AR and its splice variant, AR-V7, and their subcellular distributions in PCa by immunohistochemistry and to correlate the results to the clinicopathological data and prognosis. Immunohistochemical staining for AR and AR-V7 was performed on a tissue microarray (TMA) with specimens from 410 PCa patients using an immunoreactive score (IRS) or only the percentage of AR-V7 staining in cytoplasmic granules. Nuclear or cytoplasmic AR staining was not associated with prognosis. AR-V7 staining was only occasionally observed in the nucleus. However, AR-V7 staining in the cytoplasm or in cytoplasmic granules was associated with relapse-free survival (RFS). AR-V7 staining of the cytoplasm was associated with a shorter RFS, whereas AR-V7 staining of cytoplasmic granules was associated with a longer RFS. In a multivariate Cox’s regression analysis, only negative (<5%) AR-V7 staining of cytoplasmic granules remained an independent prognostic factor for RFS (HR = 5.3; p = 0.006). In a further subgroup analysis by multivariate Cox’s regression analysis, AR-V7 was an independent prognostic factor in the following groups: age ≤ 65 (HR = 9.7; p = 0.029), negative CK20 staining (HR = 7.0; p = 0.008), and positive perineural invasion (HR = 3.7; p = 0.034). Altogether, AR-V7 protein in granular cytoplasmic structures is an independent prognostic factor for RFS in PCa patients.
    • Expression of GP88 (Progranulin) in serum of prostate cancer patients is associated with gleason scores and overall survival

      Greither, T.; Fischer, K.; Theil, G. (Dove Medical Press Ltd, 2018)
      Background: GP88/Progranulin is a well-recognized cell growth promoter in different cancers, and elevated serum GP88 levels have been described as negative prognostic factor in breast cancer. However, serum levels in prostate cancer (PCa) patients have not yet been studied. Material and Methods: We analyzed serum GP88 levels by enzyme immunosorbent assay and correlated them with clinicopathological parameters in PCa patients. PCa patients were separated into two groups based on the serum GP88 median level (low ≤44.56 ng/mL or high >44.56 ng/mL) and according to their median age (younger ≤66 years or elder patients >66 years). Results: Low serum GP88 levels were more often detected in younger patients and high levels in elder patients (P=0.018; Fisher’s exact test). PCa patients were separated into three groups, Gleason score (GS) ≤6; GS=7; and GS≥8. In receiver operating characteristic analyses, we could distinguish GS≤6 from GS=7 [area under the curve (AUC): 0.646; P=0.018] and GS≤6 from GS≥8 (AUC: 0.629; P=0.048) but not GS=7 from GS≥8. For survival analysis, GP88 levels were separated into two groups by an optimized cutoff value of 36.92 ng/mL. Using this GP88 stratification, all PCa patients and younger patients with a low serum GP88 level had a significantly better overall survival compared with patients with higher serum GP88 levels (log-rank test P=0.010 and P=0.024). Conclusion: Serum GP88 levels are significantly different depending on age and GS, and they are associated with the prognosis of PCa patients. Copyright 2018 Greither et al.