• Phenotypic and Functional Alterations of Immune Effectors in Periodontitis; A Multifactorial and Complex Oral Disease

      Kaur, Kawaljit; Vaziri, Shahram; Romero-Reyes, Marcela; Paranjpe, Avina; Jewett, Anahid (MDPI AG, 2021-02-20)
      Survival and function of immune subsets in the oral blood, peripheral blood and gingival tissues of patients with periodontal disease and healthy controls were assessed. NK and CD8 + T cells within the oral blood mononuclear cells (OBMCs) expressed significantly higher levels of CD69 in patients with periodontal disease compared to those from healthy controls. Similarly, TNF-α release was higher from oral blood of patients with periodontal disease when compared to healthy controls. Increased activation induced cell death of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) but not OBMCs from patients with periodontal disease was observed when compared to those from healthy individuals. Unlike those from healthy individuals, OBMC-derived supernatants from periodontitis patients exhibited decreased ability to induce secretion of IFN-γ by allogeneic healthy PBMCs treated with IL-2, while they triggered significant levels of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 by untreated PBMCs. Interaction of PBMCs, or NK cells with intact or NFκB knock down oral epithelial cells in the presence of a periodontal pathogen, F. nucleatum, significantly induced a number of pro-inflammatory cytokines including IFN-γ. These studies indicated that the relative numbers of immune subsets obtained from peripheral blood may not represent the composition of the immune cells in the oral environment, and that orally-derived immune effectors may differ in survival and function from those of peripheral blood.