• Effect of Sofosbuvir/Ledipasvir and Glecaprevir/Pibrentasvir on Serum Creatinine

      Amjad, Waseem; Zhang, Talan; Maheshwari, Anurag; Thuluvath, Paul J. (Elsevier B.V., 2021-08-20)
      Background & objectives: There are reports of worsening renal functions with sofosbuvir, but there are no comparative data of different direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) on serum creatinine. In this retrospective cohort analysis, we examined the treatment effect of two commonly used regimens, sofosbuvir/ledipasvir (SOF/LDV) and glecaprevir/pibrentasvir (GLE/PIB), on serum creatinine. Methods: We included all patients treated with SOF/LDV (n = 825) and GLE/PIB (n = 116) between December 1, 2014, and December 31, 2018. An increase of serum creatinine ≥0.3 mg/dL was considered clinically significant. The change of creatinine values from pretreatment to posttreatment between two treatment groups was tested in unadjusted and adjusted generalized linear model, and risk factors associated with creatinine change were assessed. In addition, GLE/PIB-treated patients were matched 1:2 to SOF/LDV-treated patients using propensity scores, and then serum creatinine changes were compared. Results: The mean baseline creatinine was higher in the GLE/PIB group vs. SOF/LDV group (1.39 ± 1.86 vs. 0.91 ± 0.24, P = 0.007). When compared to baseline, serum creatinine at posttreatment week 4 was significantly higher in SOF/LDV group (0.97 ± 0.4 vs.0.91 ± 0.24, P < 0.001), but there was no significant change in the GLE/PIB group (1.41 ± 1.73 vs. 1.39 ± 1.86, P = 0.52). Overall, there was no significant change in serum creatinine between posttreatment week 4 and week 24 (P = 0.6). Clinically significant increase in serum creatinine was seen in 6% (46/825) of SOF/LDV and 7% (8/116) of GLE/PIB (P = 0.6). The unadjusted and adjusted models indicated that the changes in creatinine from baseline to posttreatment week 4 and week 24 were not associated with the type of DAA combination. Conclusion: Treatment of chronic hepatitis C infection with both SOF/LDV and GLE/PIB regimens may result in an increase of creatinine, and 6–7% will have an increase in serum creatinine of ≥0.3 mg/dL. The increase in creatinine, however, is unrelated to the type of DAA combination. © 2021 Indian National Association for Study of the Liver
    • Lymphocyte landscape after chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) cure: The new normal

      Ghosh, Alip; Romani, Sara; Kottilil, Shyam; Poonia, Bhawna (MDPI AG, 2020-10-02)
      Chronic HCV (CHC) infection is the only chronic viral infection for which curative treatments have been discovered. These direct acting antiviral (DAA) agents target specific steps in the viral replication cycle with remarkable efficacy and result in sustained virologic response (SVR) or cure in high (>95%) proportions of patients. These treatments became available 6–7 years ago and it is estimated that their real impact on HCV related morbidity, including outcomes such as cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), will not be known for the next decade or so. The immune system of a chronically infected patient is severely dysregulated and questions remain regarding the immune system’s capacity in limiting liver pathology in a cured individual. Another important consequence of impaired immunity in patients cleared of HCV with DAA will be the inability to generate protective immunity against possible re-infection, necessitating retreatments or developing a prophylactic vaccine. Thus, the impact of viral clearance on restoring immune homeostasis is being investigated by many groups. Among the important questions that need to be answered are how much the immune system normalizes with cure, how long after viral clearance this recalibration occurs, what are the consequences of persisting immune defects for protection from re-infection in vulnerable populations, and does viral clearance reduce liver pathology and the risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma in individuals cured with these agents. Here, we review the recent literature that describes the defects present in various lymphocyte populations in a CHC patient and their status after viral clearance using DAA treatments.