• B and T Cell Immunity in Tissues and Across the Ages.

      Booth, Jayaum S; Toapanta, Franklin R (MDPI AG, 2021-01-06)
      B and T cells are key components of the adaptive immune system and coordinate multiple facets of immunity including responses to infection, vaccines, allergens, and the environment. In humans, B- and T-cell immunity has been determined using primarily peripheral blood specimens. Conversely, human tissues have scarcely been studied but they host multiple adaptive immune cells capable of mounting immune responses to pathogens and participate in tissue homeostasis. Mucosal tissues, such as the intestines and respiratory track, are constantly bombarded by foreign antigens and contain tissue-resident memory T (TRM) cells that exhibit superior protective capacity to pathogens. Also, tissue-resident memory B (BRM) cells have been identified in mice but whether humans have a similar population remains to be confirmed. Moreover, the immune system evolves throughout the lifespan of humans and undergoes multiple changes in its immunobiology. Recent studies have shown that age-related changes in tissues are not necessarily reflected in peripheral blood specimens, highlighting the importance of tissue localization and subset delineation as essential determinants of functional B and T cells at different life stages. This review describes our current knowledge of the main B- and T-cell subsets in peripheral blood and tissues across age groups.
    • IL-21-Deficient T Follicular Helper Cells Support B Cell Responses Through IL-27 in Patients With Chronic Hepatitis B.

      Khanam, Arshi; Ayithan, Natarajan; Tang, Lydia; Poonia, Bhawna; Kottilil, Shyam (Frontiers Media S.A., 2021-01-28)
      Chronic Hepatitis B (CHB) affects over 350 million people worldwide. Current treatment does result in reduced complications; however, a cure (development of antibodies to the S antigen) is not achieved, requiring life-long therapy. Humoral responses contribute to viral elimination by secreting neutralizing antibodies; though, effective induction of humoral immunity require CD4T cell differentiation into T follicular helper (TFH) cells that support B cell response through interleukin-21 (IL-21). In CHB, mechanism of TFH-B interactions is seldom described. During CHB, TFH cells are defective in producing IL-21 in response to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). However, regardless of low IL-21, TFH cells efficiently support B cell responses by producing interleukin-27 (IL-27), which directs the formation of plasmablasts and plasma cells from memory and naïve B cells by enhancing B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein-1. IL-27 not only improved total antibody production but HBsAg-specific IgG and IgM secretion that are essential for viral clearance. Importantly, IL-27+TFH cells were significantly associated with HBV DNA reduction. Therefore, these findings imply a novel mechanism of TFH mediated B cell help in CHB and suggest that IL-27 effectively compensate the function of IL-21 by supporting TFH-B cell function, required for protective antibody response and may contribute to viral clearance by providing potential target for achieving a functional cure.
    • Lipid-Mediated Insertion of Toll-Like Receptor (TLR) Ligands for Facile Immune Cell Engineering

      Zhang, M.H.; Slaby, E.M.; Szeto, G.L. (Frontiers Media S.A., 2020)
      Cell-based immunotherapies have tremendous potential to treat many diseases, such as activating immunity in cancer or suppressing it in autoimmune diseases. Most cell-based cancer immunotherapies in the clinic provide adjuvant signals through genetic engineering to enhance T cell functions. However, genetically encoded signals have minimal control over dosing and persist for the life of a cell lineage. These properties make it difficult to balance increasing therapeutic efficacy with reducing toxicities. Here, we demonstrated the potential of phospholipid-coupled ligands as a non-genetic system for immune cell engineering. This system provides simple, controlled, non-genetic adjuvant delivery to immune cells via lipid-mediated insertion into plasma membranes. Lipid-mediated insertion (termed depoting) successfully delivered Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands intracellularly and onto cell surfaces of diverse immune cells. These ligands depoted into immune cells in a dose-controlled fashion and did not compete during multiplex pairwise loading. Immune cell activation could be enhanced by autocrine and paracrine mechanisms depending on the biology of the TLR ligand tested. Depoted ligands functionally persisted on plasma membranes for up to 4 days in naïve and activated T cells, enhancing their activation, proliferation, and skewing cytokine secretion. Our data showed that depoted ligands provided a persistent yet non-permanent adjuvant signal to immune cells that may minimize the intensity and duration of toxicities compared to permanent genetic delivery. Altogether, these findings demonstrate potential for lipid-mediated depoting as a universal cell engineering approach with unique, complementary advantages to other cell engineering methods. Copyright 2020 Zhang, et. al.