• ABCG2 polymorphisms in gout: Insights into disease susceptibility and treatment approaches

      Cleophas, M.C.; Joosten, L.A.; Stamp, L.K. (Dove Medical Press Ltd, 2017)
      As a result of the association of a common polymorphism (rs2231142, Q141K) in the ATP-binding cassette G2 (ABCG2) transporter with serum urate concentration in a genome-wide association study, it was revealed that ABCG2 is an important uric acid transporter. This review discusses the relevance of ABCG2 polymorphisms in gout, possible etiological mechanisms, and treatment approaches. The 141K ABCG2 urate-increasing variant causes instability in the nucleotide-binding domain, leading to decreased surface expression and function. Trafficking of the protein to the cell membrane is altered, and instead, there is an increased ubiquitin-mediated proteasomal degradation of the variant protein as well as sequestration into aggresomes. In humans, this leads to decreased uric acid excretion through both the kidney and the gut with the potential for a subsequent compensatory increase in renal urinary excretion. Not only does the 141K polymorphism in ABCG2 lead to hyperuricemia through renal overload and renal underexcretion, but emerging evidence indicates that it also increases the risk of acute gout in the presence of hyperuricemia, early onset of gout, tophi formation, and a poor response to allopurinol. In addition, there is some evidence that ABCG2 dysfunction may promote renal dysfunction in chronic kidney disease patients, increase systemic inflammatory responses, and decrease cellular autophagic responses to stress. These results suggest multiple benefits in restoring ABCG2 function. It has been shown that decreased ABCG2 141K surface expression and function can be restored with colchicine and other small molecule correctors. However, caution should be exercised in any application of these approaches given the role of surface ABCG2 in drug resistance. Copyright 2017 Cleophas et al.
    • Sex Differences in Urate Handling

      Halperin, Kuhns, V.L.; Woodward, O.M. (MDPI AG, 2020)
      Hyperuricemia, or elevated serum urate, causes urate kidney stones and gout and also increases the incidence of many other conditions including renal disease, cardiovascular disease, and metabolic syndrome. As we gain mechanistic insight into how urate contributes to human disease, a clear sex difference has emerged in the physiological regulation of urate homeostasis. This review summarizes our current understanding of urate as a disease risk factor and how being of the female sex appears protective. Further, we review the mechanisms of renal handling of urate and the significant contributions from powerful genome-wide association studies of serum urate. We also explore the role of sex in the regulation of specific renal urate transporters and the power of new animal models of hyperuricemia to inform on the role of sex and hyperuricemia in disease pathogenesis. Finally, we advocate the use of sex differences in urate handling as a potent tool in gaining a further understanding of physiological regulation of urate homeostasis and for presenting new avenues for treating the constellation of urate related pathologies.