• Allogeneic Transplantation to Treat Therapy-Related Myelodysplastic Syndrome and Acute Myelogenous Leukemia in Adults.

      Metheny, Leland; Callander, Natalie S; Hall, Aric C; Zhang, Mei-Jei; Bo-Subait, Khalid; Wang, Hai-Lin; Agrawal, Vaibhav; Al-Homsi, A Samer; Assal, Amer; Bacher, Ulrike; et al. (Elsevier Inc., 2021-08-21)
      Patients who develop therapy-related myeloid neoplasm, either myelodysplastic syndrome (t-MDS) or acute myelogenous leukemia (t-AML), have a poor prognosis. An earlier Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR) analysis of 868 allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantations (allo-HCTs) performed between 1990 and 2004 showed a 5-year overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) of 22% and 21%, respectively. Modern supportive care, graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis, and reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) regimens have led to improved outcomes. Therefore, the CIBMTR analyzed 1531 allo-HCTs performed in adults with t-MDS (n = 759) or t-AML (n = 772) between and 2000 and 2014. The median age was 59 years (range, 18 to 74 years) for the patients with t-MDS and 52 years (range, 18 to 77 years) for those with t-AML. Twenty-four percent of patients with t-MDS and 11% of those with t-AML had undergone a previous autologous (auto-) HCT. A myeloablative conditioning (MAC) regimen was used in 49% of patients with t-MDS and 61% of patients with t-AML. Nonrelapse mortality at 5 years was 34% (95% confidence interval [CI], 30% to 37%) for patients with t-MDS and 34% (95% CI, 30% to 37%) for those with t-AML. Relapse rates at 5 years in the 2 groups were 46% (95% CI, 43% to 50%) and 43% (95% CI, 40% to 47%). Five-year OS and DFS were 27% (95% CI, 23% to 31%) and 19% (95% CI, 16% to 23%), respectively, for patients with t-MDS and 25% (95% CI, 22% to 28%) and 23% (95% CI, 20% to 26%), respectively, for those with t-AML. In multivariate analysis, OS and DFS were significantly better in young patients with low-risk t-MDS and those with t-AML undergoing HCT with MAC while in first complete remission, but worse for those with previous auto-HCT, higher-risk cytogenetics or Revised International Prognostic Scoring System score, and a partially matched unrelated donor. Relapse remains the major cause of treatment failure, with little improvement seen over the past 2 decades. These data mandate caution when recommending allo-HCT in these conditions and indicate the need for more effective antineoplastic approaches before and after allo-HCT.
    • Fludarabine and Melphalan Compared with Reduced Doses of Busulfan and Fludarabine Improve Transplantation Outcomes in Older Patients with Myelodysplastic Syndromes

      Oran, Betül; Ahn, Kwang Woo; Fretham, Caitrin; Beitinjaneh, Amer; Bashey, Asad; Pawarode, Attaphol; Wirk, Baldeep; Scott, Bart L.; Savani, Bipin N.; Bredeson, Christopher; et al. (Elsevier BV, 2021-11)
    • Optimal Donor for African Americans with Hematologic Malignancy: HLA-Haploidentical Relative or Umbilical Cord Blood Transplant.

      Solomon, Scott R; St Martin, Andrew; Zhang, Mei-Jie; Ballen, Karen; Bashey, Asad; Battiwalla, Minoo; Baxter-Lowe, Lee Ann; Brunstein, Claudio; Chhabra, Saurabh; Perez, Miguel Angel Diaz; et al. (Elsevier Inc., 2020-07-07)
      Although hematopoietic cell transplantation from an HLA-matched unrelated donor is potentially curative for hematologic malignancies, survival is lower for African Americans compared with Caucasians. Because only approximately 20% of African Americans will have an HLA-matched unrelated donor, many of these patients undergo HLA-haploidentical relative or umbilical cord blood transplantation. In this study, we analyzed outcomes after HLA-haploidentical related donor (n = 249) and umbilical cord blood (n = 118) transplantations in African American patients with hematologic malignancy between 2008 and 2016. The predominant disease was acute myelogenous leukemia for recipients of both types of donor grafts. The incidences of grade II-IV and III-IV acute graft-versus-host disease were higher after umbilical cord blood transplantation compared with HLA-haploidentical relative transplantation (56% and 29%, respectively, versus 33% and 11%, respectively; P < .0001). The 2-year incidence of transplantation-related mortality adjusted for age and conditioning regimen intensity was higher after umbilical cord blood transplantation compared with HLA-haploidentical related donor transplantation (31% versus 18%; P = .008); however, there were no between-group differences in the 2-year adjusted incidence of relapse (30% versus 34%; P =. 51), overall survival (54% versus 57%; P =. 66), or disease-free survival (43% versus 47%; P =. 46). Our findings show that the use of HLA-haploidentical and umbilical cord blood transplants expands the access to transplantation with comparable leukemia-free and overall survival for African Americans with hematologic malignancies.