• Exposure to a Multilevel, Multicomponent Obesity Prevention Intervention (OPREVENT2) in Rural Native American Communities: Variability and Association with Change in Diet Quality

      Estradé, Michelle; van Dongen, Ellen J I; Trude, Angela C B; Poirier, Lisa; Fleischhacker, Sheila; Wensel, Caroline R; Redmond, Leslie C; Pardilla, Marla; Swartz, Jacqueline; Treuth, Margarita S; et al. (MDPI AG, 2021-11-19)
      The OPREVENT2 obesity prevention trial was a multilevel multicomponent (MLMC) intervention implemented in rural Native American communities in the Midwest and Southwest U.S. Intervention components were delivered through local food stores, worksites, schools, community action coalitions, and by social and community media. Due to the complex nature of MLMC intervention trials, it is useful to assess participants' exposure to each component of the intervention in order to assess impact. In this paper, we present a detailed methodology for evaluating participant exposure to MLMC intervention, and we explore how exposure to the OPREVENT2 trial impacted participant diet quality. There were no significant differences in total exposure score by age group, sex, or geographic region, but exposure to sub-components of the intervention differed significantly by age group, sex, and geographical region. Participants with the highest overall exposure scores showed significantly more improvement in diet quality from baseline to follow up compared to those who were least exposed to the intervention. Improved diet quality was also significantly positively associated with several exposure sub-components. While evaluating exposure to an entire MLMC intervention is complex and imperfect, it can provide useful insight into an intervention's impact on key outcome measures, and it can help identify which components of the intervention were most effective.