• A genotyping assay to determine geographic origin and transmission potential of Plasmodium falciparum malaria cases.

      Molina-Cruz, Alvaro; Raytselis, Nadia; Withers, Roxanne; Dwivedi, Ankit; Crompton, Peter D; Traore, Boubacar; Carpi, Giovanna; Silva, Joana C; Barillas-Mury, Carolina (Springer Nature, 2021-09-30)
      As countries work towards malaria elimination, it is important to monitor imported cases to prevent reestablishment of local transmission. The Plasmodium falciparum Pfs47 gene has strong geographic population structure, because only those parasites with Pfs47 haplotypes compatible with the mosquito vector species in a given continent are efficiently transmitted. Analysis of 4,971 world-wide Pfs47 sequences identified two SNPs (at 707 and 725 bp) as sufficient to establish the likely continent of origin of P. falciparum isolates. Pfs47 sequences from Africa, Asia, and the New World presented more that 99% frequency of distinct combinations of the SNPs 707 and 725 genotypes. Interestingly, Papua New Guinea Pfs47 sequences have the highest diversity in SNPs 707 and 725. Accurate and reproducible High-Resolution Melting (HRM) assays were developed to genotype Pfs47 SNPs 707 and 725 in laboratory and field samples, to assess the geographic origin and risk of local transmission of imported P. falciparum malaria cases.