• Autoantibodies against tumor-associated antigens in sputum as biomarkers for lung cancer.

      Li, Ning; Holden, Van K; Deepak, Janaki; Todd, Nevins W; Jiang, Feng (Neoplasia Press, Inc., 2021-01)
      Tumor antigens (TAs) can initiate host immune responses and produce TA-associated autoantibody (TAAbs), potential cancer biomarkers. Sputum is directly generated from the upper and lower airways, and thus can be used as a surrogate sample for the diagnosis of lung cancer based on molecular analysis. To develop sputum TAAb biomarkers for the early detection of lung cancer, the leading cause of cancer death, we probed a protein microarray containing more than 9,000 antigens with sputum supernatants of a discovery set of 30 lung cancer patients and 30 cancer-free smokers. Twenty-eight TAs with higher reactivity in sputum of lung cancer cases vs. controls were identified. The diagnostic significance of TAAbs against the TAs was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) in sputum of the discovery set and additional 166 lung cancer patients and 213 cancer-free smokers (validation set). Three sputum TAAbs against DDX6, ENO1, and 14–3-3ζ were developed as a biomarker panel with 81% sensitivity and 83% specificity for diagnosis of lung cancer, regardless of stages, locations, and histological types of lung tumors. This study provides the first evidence that sputum TAAbs could be used as biomarkers for the early detection of lung cancer.
    • Microbiota Biomarkers for Lung Cancer

      Leng, Qixin; Holden, Van K; Deepak, Janaki; Todd, Nevins W; Jiang, Feng (MDPI AG, 2021-02-27)
      Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the number one cancer killer and its early detection can reduce mortality. Accumulating evidences suggest an etiopathogenic role of microorganisms in lung tumorigenesis. Certain bacteria are found to be associated with NSCLC. Herein we evaluated the potential use of microbiome as biomarkers for the early detection of NSCLC. We used droplet digital PCR to analyze 25 NSCLC-associated bacterial genera in 31 lung tumor and the paired noncancerous lung tissues and sputum of 17 NSCLC patients and ten cancer-free smokers. Of the bacterial genera, four had altered abundances in lung tumor tissues, while five were aberrantly abundant in sputum of NSCLC patients compared with their normal counterparts (all p < 0.05). Acidovorax and Veillonella were further developed as a panel of sputum biomarkers that could diagnose lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) with 80% sensitivity and 89% specificity. The use of Capnocytophaga as a sputum biomarker identified lung adenocarcinoma (AC) with 72% sensitivity and 85% specificity. The use of Acidovorax as a sputum biomarker had 63% sensitivity and 96% specificity for distinguishing between SCC and AC, the two major types of NSCLC. The sputum biomarkers were further validated for the diagnostic values in a different cohort of 69 NSCLC cases and 79 cancer-free controls. Sputum microbiome might provide noninvasive biomarkers for the early detection and classification of NSCLC.