• Confirming Parkinson Disease Diagnosis: Patterns of Diagnostic Changes by Movement Disorder Specialists.

      Keshtkarjahromi, Marzieh; Abraham, Danielle S; Gruber-Baldini, Ann L; Schrader, Katrina; Reich, Stephen G; Savitt, Joseph M; von Coelln, Rainer; Shulman, Lisa M (Hindawi, 2022-05-09)
      Of 1567 patients with parkinsonism, 174 had non-PD parkinsonism with no change over time. Of 1393 patients diagnosed with PD at least once, 94% (N = 1308) had no change of diagnosis over time and 6% (N = 85) had a change of diagnosis including PD ⟷ drug-induced parkinsonism (DIP) (27.1%), PD ⟷ multiple system atrophy (MSA) (20.0%), PD ⟷ progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) (18.8%), PD ⟷ Lewy body dementia (DLB) (16.5%), PD⟷ vascular parkinsonism (9.4%), more than two diagnoses (4.7%), and PD ⟷ corticobasal syndrome (CBS) (3.5%). The direction of diagnostic switches was as follows: PD ⟶ other parkinsonism diseases (36.5%), other parkinsonism diseases ⟶ PD (31.8%), and 31.8% of multiple switches. There were no significant differences in duration of follow-up, age at first visit, gender, race, marital status, education, income, cognition, or employment between the stable and unstable groups. Diagnostic change was associated with greater PD severity and greater medical comorbidity.
    • Non-motor phenotypic subgroups in adult-onset idiopathic, isolated, focal cervical dystonia

      Wadon, Megan E; Bailey, Grace A; Yilmaz, Zehra; Hubbard, Emily; AlSaeed, Meshari; Robinson, Amy; McLauchlan, Duncan; Barbano, Richard L; Marsh, Laura; Factor, Stewart A; et al. (Wiley-Blackwell, 2021-07-21)
      Background: Non-motor symptoms are well established phenotypic components of adult-onset idiopathic, isolated, focal cervical dystonia (AOIFCD). However, improved understanding of their clinical heterogeneity is needed to better target therapeutic intervention. Here, we examine non-motor phenotypic features to identify possible AOIFCD subgroups. Methods: Participants diagnosed with AOIFCD were recruited via specialist neurology clinics (dystonia wales: n = 114, dystonia coalition: n = 183). Non-motor assessment included psychiatric symptoms, pain, sleep disturbance, and quality of life, assessed using self-completed questionnaires or face-to-face assessment. Both cohorts were analyzed independently using Cluster, and Bayesian multiple mixed model phenotype analyses to investigate the relationship between non-motor symptoms and determine evidence of phenotypic subgroups. Results: Independent cluster analysis of the two cohorts suggests two predominant phenotypic subgroups, one consisting of approximately a third of participants in both cohorts, experiencing increased levels of depression, anxiety, sleep impairment, and pain catastrophizing, as well as, decreased quality of life. The Bayesian approach reinforced this with the primary axis, which explained the majority of the variance, in each cohort being associated with psychiatric symptomology, and also sleep impairment and pain catastrophizing in the Dystonia Wales cohort. Conclusions: Non-motor symptoms accompanying AOIFCD parse into two predominant phenotypic sub-groups, with differences in psychiatric symptoms, pain catastrophizing, sleep quality, and quality of life. Improved understanding of these symptom groups will enable better targeted pathophysiological investigation and future therapeutic intervention.
    • Twelve Drummers Drumming… With Dystonia

      Bledsoe, Ian O; Reich, Stephen G; Frucht, Steven J; Goldman, Jennifer G (Ubiquity Press, 2021-02-08)
      Background: Reports of drummers’ dystonia are rare, particularly compared to the literature on dystonia in string, piano and brass players. Several cases of drummers’ dystonia have been included in large series of multiple instrumentalists, but there are few reports comprised exclusively of drummers with musicians’ dystonia. We present here a series of 12 drummers with task-specific, focal dystonia affecting their upper limbs while drumming and spanning multiple playing techniques and musical styles. Methods: We conducted a retrospective chart review of drummers with dystonia seen at academic Movement Disorders centers. Results: All 12 patients were male, and the majority eventually developed spread of dystonia to tasks other than drumming. Ten of the 12 had dystonia affecting their fingers, while 8/12 had dystonia affecting the wrist. Only 1/12 had involvement proximal to the wrist. Pharmacologic interventions were largely ineffective; 3 had some benefit from botulinum toxin injections, but this was limited by problematic weakness in one drummer. Discussion: The phenomenology in our series is concordant with prior reported cases, demonstrating frequent wrist involvement, though we also found that a greater proportion of patients had dystonia affecting the fingers. It could be hypothesized that different drumming techniques or musical styles modulate the relative risk of dystonic involvement of the different anatomical regions of the upper limb. Highlights: Drummers’ dystonia is one of the least common forms of musicians’ dystonia, though this may reflect fewer numbers of these instrumentalists. We present the largest series of drummers’ dystonia and review previously published cases. Our cohort, representing diverse drumming styles, showed frequent involvement of dystonia in the wrists and fingers. © 2021 The Author(s).