• Molecular Epidemiology of Carbapenem-Resistant in the United States, 2013-2017.

      McKay, Susannah L; Vlachos, Nicholas; Daniels, Jonathan B; Albrecht, Valerie S; Stevens, Valerie A; Rasheed, J Kamile; Johnson, J Kristie; Lutgring, Joseph D; Sjölund-Karlsson, Maria; Halpin, Alison Laufer (Mary Ann Liebert Inc., 2022-05-27)
      Healthcare-associated carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) infections are a serious threat associated with global epidemic clones and a variety of carbapenemase gene classes. In this study, we describe the molecular epidemiology, including whole-genome sequencing analysis and antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of 92 selected, nonredundant CRAB collected through public health efforts in the United States from 2013 to 2017. Among the 92 isolates, the Oxford (OX) multilocus sequence typing scheme identified 30 sequence types (STs); the majority of isolates (n = 59, 64%) represented STs belonging to the international clonal complex 92 (CC92OX). Among these, ST208OX (n = 21) and ST281OX (n = 20) were the most common. All isolates carried an OXA-type carbapenemase gene, comprising 20 alleles. Ninety isolates (98%) encoded an intrinsic OXA-51-like enzyme; 67 (73%) harbored an additional acquired blaOXA gene, most commonly blaOXA-23 (n = 45; 49%). Compared with isolates harboring only intrinsic oxacillinase genes, acquired blaOXA gene presence was associated with higher prevalence of resistance and a higher median minimum inhibitory concentration to the carbapenem imipenem (64 μg/mL vs. 8 μg/mL), and antibiotics from other drug classes, including penicillin, aminoglycosides, cephalosporins, and polymyxins. These data illustrate the wide distribution of CC92OX and high prevalence of acquired blaOXA carbapenemase genes among CRAB in the United States.
    • Sentinel Surveillance Reveals Emerging Daptomycin-Resistant ST736 and Multiple Mechanisms of Linezolid Resistance in Enterococci in the United States.

      Gargis, Amy S; Spicer, Lori M; Kent, Alyssa G; Zhu, Wenming; Campbell, Davina; McAllister, Gillian; Ewing, Thomas O; Albrecht, Valerie; Stevens, Valerie A; Sheth, Mili; et al. (Frontiers Media S.A., 2022-02-01)
      Enterococcus faecalis and faecium with resistance to daptomycin and/or linezolid are emerging globally. We present the genomic characterization of daptomycin- and linezolid-resistant E. faecalis and E. faecium surveillance isolates from the United States, 2013-2016. Daptomycin resistance was low among E. faecalis (2/364, 0.5%) and E. faecium (17/344, 5%). The majority (71%, 12/17) of daptomycin-resistant E. faecium isolates belonged to the emerging ST736 clone and contained mutations in liaFSR and cls previously associated with resistance. However, 1/2 E. faecalis and 3/17 E. faecium did not contain these mutations previously associated with daptomycin resistance. Linezolid resistance was rare among E. faecalis (1/364, 0.3%) and E. faecium (2/344, 0.6%). These two E. faecium isolates, one of which was also resistant to daptomycin and vancomycin, contained the 23S rRNA nucleotide mutation (G2576T) associated with linezolid resistance. Long-read sequencing revealed the linezolid-resistant E. faecalis isolate contained chromosomal- and plasmid-encoded copies of optrA. The chromosomal optrA was located on the recently described Tn6674 multiresistance transposon. The second copy of optrA was encoded on an ∼65 kb mosaic plasmid, with component regions sharing high sequence identity to optrA-encoding multiresistance plasmids of animal origin. The optrA-encoding plasmid contained open reading frames predicted to encode proteins associated with a pheromone-responsive plasmid transfer system, and filter mating experiments confirmed the plasmid was conjugative. Continued surveillance of enterococci is necessary to assess the prevalence and trends of daptomycin and linezolid resistance in the United States, characterize resistance mechanisms and how they transfer, and monitor for emerging sequence types associated with resistance.