• Red Blood Cell Transfusion and Postoperative Delirium in Hip Fracture Surgery Patients: A Retrospective Observational Cohort Study

      Raphael, Jacob; Hensley, Nadia B; Chow, Jonathan; Parr, K Gage; McNeil, John S; Porter, Steven B; Taneja, Monica; Tanaka, Kenichi; Mazzeffi, Michael (Elsevier Inc., 2021-11-22)
      Background. Patients having hip fracture surgery are at high risk for postoperative delirium. Red blood cell (RBC) transfusion may increase postoperative delirium risk by causing neuroinflammation. We hypothesized that RBC transfusion would be associated with postoperative delirium in patients having hip fracture surgery. Methods. An observational cohort study was performed using the United States National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) participant use files for hip fracture from 2016 to 2018. Propensity score analysis and inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) were used to reduce bias from confounding. An IPTW adjusted odds ratio for developing postoperative delirium was calculated for patients who received RBC transfusion during surgery or in the 72 hours after. Results. There were 20,838 patients who had eligible current procedural terminology (CPT) codes for primary hip fracture surgery and complete study data. After employing strict exclusions to balance covariates and reduce bias, 3,715 patients remained in the IPTW cohort. Of these, 626 patients (16.9%) received RBC transfusion and 665 patients (17.9%) developed postoperative delirium. IPTW adjustment led to good covariate balance between patients who received RBC transfusion and those who did not. Patients who received RBC transfusion had significantly higher odds of postoperative delirium, IPTW adjusted odds ratio = 1.21, 95% CI = 1.03 to 1.43, and  = 0.02. Discharge location also differed significantly between patients who received RBC transfusion and those who did not ( < 0.001) with in-hospital mortality or referral to hospice occurring in 1.6% of patients who received RBC transfusion and 1.3% of patients who were not transfused. Conclusion. RBC transfusion is associated with increased odds of postoperative delirium after hip fracture surgery and may be associated with worse clinical outcome.