• A comprehensive systematic review of CSF proteins and peptides that define Alzheimer’s disease

      Pedrero-Prieto, Cristina M.; García-Carpintero, Sonia; Frontiñán-Rubio, Javier; Llanos-González, Emilio; Aguilera García, Cristina; Alcaín, Francisco J.; Lindberg, Iris; Durán-Prado, Mario; Peinado, Juan R.; Rabanal-Ruiz, Yoana (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2020-06-05)
      Background: During the last two decades, over 100 proteomics studies have identified a variety of potential biomarkers in CSF of Alzheimer's (AD) patients. Although several reviews have proposed specific biomarkers, to date, the statistical relevance of these proteins has not been investigated and no peptidomic analyses have been generated on the basis of specific up- or down- regulation. Herein, we perform an analysis of all unbiased explorative proteomics studies of CSF biomarkers in AD to critically evaluate whether proteins and peptides identified in each study are consistent in distribution; direction change; and significance, which would strengthen their potential use in studies of AD pathology and progression. Methods: We generated a database containing all CSF proteins whose levels are known to be significantly altered in human AD from 47 independent, validated, proteomics studies. Using this database, which contains 2022 AD and 2562 control human samples, we examined whether each protein is consistently present on the basis of reliable statistical studies; and if so, whether it is over- or under-represented in AD. Additionally, we performed a direct analysis of available mass spectrometric data of these proteins to generate an AD CSF peptide database with 3221 peptides for further analysis. Results: Of the 162 proteins that were identified in 2 or more studies, we investigated their enrichment or depletion in AD CSF. This allowed us to identify 23 proteins which were increased and 50 proteins which were decreased in AD, some of which have never been revealed as consistent AD biomarkers (i.e. SPRC or MUC18). Regarding the analysis of the tryptic peptide database, we identified 87 peptides corresponding to 13 proteins as the most highly consistently altered peptides in AD. Analysis of tryptic peptide fingerprinting revealed specific peptides encoded by CH3L1, VGF, SCG2, PCSK1N, FBLN3 and APOC2 with the highest probability of detection in AD. Conclusions: Our study reveals a panel of 27 proteins and 21 peptides highly altered in AD with consistent statistical significance; this panel constitutes a potent tool for the classification and diagnosis of AD. Copyright 2020 The Author(s).