• Co-use of alcohol, tobacco, and licit and illicit controlled substances among pregnant and non-pregnant women in the United States: Findings from 2006 to 2014 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) data

      Qato, D.M.; Zhang, C.; Gandhi, A.B.; Simoni-Wastila, L. (Elsevier Ireland Ltd, 2020)
      Background: The use, misuse and co-use of alcohol, cannabis, tobacco, and other licit and illicit controlled substances has increased in past decades leading to higher rates of morbidity, overdose, and mortality in women of reproductive age. Co-use compounds the adverse health effects of substance use compared to single-use of similar substances. Little is known about the full range of substance combinations used by pregnant and non-pregnant women. We sought to describe patterns of co-use of alcohol, tobacco, and controlled substances, and examine correlates of co-use in a nationally-representative sample of women. Methods: Cross-sectional study using self-reported survey data from 2006 to 2014 for women ages 18-49 years (N = 160,371) in National Survey on Drug Use and Health data. We use weighted proportions and 95% confidence intervals (CI) to report differences in substance use patterns in pregnant and non-pregnant women. Multivariate logistic regression models assessed association between characteristics and type of substance use pattern. Results: Prevalence of substance co-use among pregnant women is 5.1% and among non-pregnant women is 23.6%. Nearly all of the most frequent co-use patterns included alcohol, cannabis, or tobacco. Determinants of co-use among pregnant women included: younger age (18-25 years) compared to ≥ 26 years [AOR (95% CI): 1.81 (1.18, 2.80)]; and past year history of substance use [AOR 5.42 (3.59, 8.20)]. Conclusions: Co-use of several substances, including and especially of tobacco, alcohol and cannabis, persists among pregnant women in the United States. Efforts that aim to improve maternal and child health should address the complexity of substance use during pregnancy, including and beyond opioids.
    • Opioid use disorder in pregnancy: leveraging provider perceptions to inform comprehensive treatment

      Titus-Glover, D.; Shaya, F.T.; Welsh, C.; Qato, D.M.; Shah, S.; Gresssler, L.E.; Vivrette, R. (Springer Nature, 2021-03-10)
      Background: Medications for opioid use disorder (MOUD) are recommended with adjuvant behavioral therapies, counseling, and other services for comprehensive treatment of maternal opioid use disorder. Inadequate access to treatment, lack of prescribing providers and complex delivery models are among known barriers to care. Multi-disciplinary provider input can be leveraged to comprehend factors that facilitate or inhibit treatment. The objective of this study is to explore provider perceptions of MOUD and factors critical to comprehensive treatment delivery to improve the care of pregnant women with opioid use disorder. Methods: A qualitative research approach was used to gather data from individual provider and group semi-structured interviews. Providers (n = 12) responded to questions in several domains related to perceptions of MOUD, treatment delivery, access to resources, and challenges/barriers. Data were collected, transcribed, coded (by consensus) and emerging themes were analyzed using grounded theory methodology. Results: Emerging themes revealed persistent gaps in treatment and challenges in provider, health systems and patient factors. Providers perceived MOUD to be a "lifeline" to women. Conclusions: Inconsistencies in treatment provision, access and uptake can be improved by leveraging provider perceptions, direct experiences and recommendations for an integrated team-based, patient-centered approach to guide the care of pregnant women with opioid use disorder. Copyright 2021, The Author(s).