• Differential and shared genetic effects on kidney function between diabetic and non-diabetic individuals.

      Winkler, Thomas W; Rasheed, Humaira; Teumer, Alexander; Gorski, Mathias; Rowan, Bryce X; Stanzick, Kira J; Thomas, Laurent F; Tin, Adrienne; Hoppmann, Anselm; Chu, Audrey Y; et al. (Springer Nature, 2022-06-13)
      Reduced glomerular filtration rate (GFR) can progress to kidney failure. Risk factors include genetics and diabetes mellitus (DM), but little is known about their interaction. We conducted genome-wide association meta-analyses for estimated GFR based on serum creatinine (eGFR), separately for individuals with or without DM (nDM = 178,691, nnoDM = 1,296,113). Our genome-wide searches identified (i) seven eGFR loci with significant DM/noDM-difference, (ii) four additional novel loci with suggestive difference and (iii) 28 further novel loci (including CUBN) by allowing for potential difference. GWAS on eGFR among DM individuals identified 2 known and 27 potentially responsible loci for diabetic kidney disease. Gene prioritization highlighted 18 genes that may inform reno-protective drug development. We highlight the existence of DM-only and noDM-only effects, which can inform about the target group, if respective genes are advanced as drug targets. Largely shared effects suggest that most drug interventions to alter eGFR should be effective in DM and noDM.
    • Sex-dimorphic genetic effects and novel loci for fasting glucose and insulin variability

      Lagou, Vasiliki; Mägi, Reedik; Hottenga, Jouke- Jan; Grallert, Harald; Perry, John R B; Bouatia-Naji, Nabila; Marullo, Letizia; Rybin, Denis; Jansen, Rick; Min, Josine L; et al. (Springer Nature, 2021-01-05)
      Differences between sexes contribute to variation in the levels of fasting glucose and insulin. Epidemiological studies established a higher prevalence of impaired fasting glucose in men and impaired glucose tolerance in women, however, the genetic component underlying this phenomenon is not established. We assess sex-dimorphic (73,089/50,404 women and 67,506/47,806 men) and sex-combined (151,188/105,056 individuals) fasting glucose/fasting insulin genetic effects via genome-wide association study meta-analyses in individuals of European descent without diabetes. Here we report sex dimorphism in allelic effects on fasting insulin at IRS1 and ZNF12 loci, the latter showing higher RNA expression in whole blood in women compared to men. We also observe sex-homogeneous effects on fasting glucose at seven novel loci. Fasting insulin in women shows stronger genetic correlations than in men with waist-to-hip ratio and anorexia nervosa. Furthermore, waist-to-hip ratio is causally related to insulin resistance in women, but not in men. These results position dissection of metabolic and glycemic health sex dimorphism as a steppingstone for understanding differences in genetic effects between women and men in related phenotypes. © 2021, The Author(s).