• Genetic and phylogenetic uncoupling of structure and function in human transmodal cortex.

      Valk, Sofie L; Xu, Ting; Paquola, Casey; Park, Bo-Yong; Bethlehem, Richard A I; Vos de Wael, Reinder; Royer, Jessica; Masouleh, Shahrzad Kharabian; Bayrak, Şeyma; Kochunov, Peter; et al. (Springer Nature, 2022-05-09)
      Brain structure scaffolds intrinsic function, supporting cognition and ultimately behavioral flexibility. However, it remains unclear how a static, genetically controlled architecture supports flexible cognition and behavior. Here, we synthesize genetic, phylogenetic and cognitive analyses to understand how the macroscale organization of structure-function coupling across the cortex can inform its role in cognition. In humans, structure-function coupling was highest in regions of unimodal cortex and lowest in transmodal cortex, a pattern that was mirrored by a reduced alignment with heritable connectivity profiles. Structure-function uncoupling in macaques had a similar spatial distribution, but we observed an increased coupling between structure and function in association cortices relative to humans. Meta-analysis suggested regions with the least genetic control (low heritable correspondence and different across primates) are linked to social-cognition and autobiographical memory. Our findings suggest that genetic and evolutionary uncoupling of structure and function in different transmodal systems may support the emergence of complex forms of cognition.
    • Shaping brain structure: Genetic and phylogenetic axes of macroscale organization of cortical thickness.

      Valk, Sofie L; Xu, Ting; Margulies, Daniel S; Masouleh, Shahrzad Kharabian; Paquola, Casey; Goulas, Alexandros; Kochunov, Peter; Smallwood, Jonathan; Yeo, B T Thomas; Bernhardt, Boris C; et al. (American Association for the Advancement of Science, 2020-09-25)
      The topology of the cerebral cortex has been proposed to provide an important source of constraint for the organization of cognition. In a sample of twins (n = 1113), we determined structural covariance of thickness to be organized along both a posterior-to-anterior and an inferior-to-superior axis. Both organizational axes were present when investigating the genetic correlation of cortical thickness, suggesting a strong genetic component in humans, and had a comparable organization in macaques, demonstrating they are phylogenetically conserved in primates. In both species, the inferior-superior dimension of cortical organization aligned with the predictions of dual-origin theory, and in humans, we found that the posterior-to-anterior axis related to a functional topography describing a continuum of functions from basic processes involved in perception and action to more abstract features of human cognition. Together, our study provides important insights into how functional and evolutionary patterns converge at the level of macroscale cortical structural organization.