• Clinical utility of antifungal susceptibility testing.

      McCarty, Todd P; Luethy, Paul M; Baddley, John W; Pappas, Peter G (Oxford University Press, 2022-06-28)
      Invasive fungal diseases cause significant morbidity and mortality, in particular affecting immunocompromised patients. Resistant organisms are of increasing importance, yet there are many notable differences in the ability to both perform and interpret antifungal susceptibility testing compared with bacteria. In this review, we will highlight the strengths and limitations of resistance data of pathogenic yeasts and moulds that may be used to guide treatment and predict clinical outcomes.
    • Coronavirus Disease 2019-Associated Invasive Fungal Infection.

      Baddley, John W; Thompson, George R; Chen, Sharon C-A; White, P Lewis; Johnson, Melissa D; Nguyen, M Hong; Schwartz, Ilan S; Spec, Andrej; Ostrosky-Zeichner, Luis; Jackson, Brendan R; et al. (Oxford University Press, 2021-11-16)
      Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can become complicated by secondary invasive fungal infections (IFIs), stemming primarily from severe lung damage and immunologic deficits associated with the virus or immunomodulatory therapy. Other risk factors include poorly controlled diabetes, structural lung disease and/or other comorbidities, and fungal colonization. Opportunistic IFI following severe respiratory viral illness has been increasingly recognized, most notably with severe influenza. There have been many reports of fungal infections associated with COVID-19, initially predominated by pulmonary aspergillosis, but with recent emergence of mucormycosis, candidiasis, and endemic mycoses. These infections can be challenging to diagnose and are associated with poor outcomes. The reported incidence of IFI has varied, often related to heterogeneity in patient populations, surveillance protocols, and definitions used for classification of fungal infections. Herein, we review IFI complicating COVID-19 and address knowledge gaps related to epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of COVID-19-associated fungal infections. © 2021 The Author(s) 2021.
    • Coronavirus Disease 2019–Associated Invasive Fungal Infection

      Baddley, John W; Thompson, George R; Chen, Sharon C -A; White, P Lewis; Johnson, Melissa D; Nguyen, M Hong; Schwartz, Ilan S; Spec, Andrej; Ostrosky-Zeichner, Luis; Jackson, Brendan R; et al. (Oxford University Press (OUP), 2021-11-16)
      Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can become complicated by secondary invasive fungal infections (IFIs), stemming primarily from severe lung damage and immunologic deficits associated with the virus or immunomodulatory therapy. Other risk factors include poorly controlled diabetes, structural lung disease and/or other comorbidities, and fungal colonization. Opportunistic IFI following severe respiratory viral illness has been increasingly recognized, most notably with severe influenza. There have been many reports of fungal infections associated with COVID-19, initially predominated by pulmonary aspergillosis, but with recent emergence of mucormycosis, candidiasis, and endemic mycoses. These infections can be challenging to diagnose and are associated with poor outcomes. The reported incidence of IFI has varied, often related to heterogeneity in patient populations, surveillance protocols, and definitions used for classification of fungal infections. Herein, we review IFI complicating COVID-19 and address knowledge gaps related to epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of COVID-19-associated fungal infections.
    • Reply to Herbrecht and Colleagues.

      Baddley, John W; Morrissey, C Orla; Shaefer-Prokop, Cornelia; Chen, Sharon C-A; Pappas, Peter G; Donnelly, J Peter (Oxford University Press, 2020-03-02)