• Cardiovascular health in pediatric heart transplant patients.

      Bogle, Carmel; Marma Perak, Amanda; Wilkens, Sarah J; Aljiffry, Alaa; Rychlik, Karen; Costello, John M; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M; Pahl, Elfriede (Springer Nature, 2022-04-01)
      Background: Ideal "cardiovascular health" (CVH)-optimal diet, exercise, nonsmoking, BMI, BP, lipids, and glucose-is associated with healthy longevity in adults. Pediatric heart transplant (HT) patients may be at risk for suboptimal CVH. Methods: Single-center retrospective study of HT patients 2003-2014 who survived 1 year post-transplant. Five CVH metrics were collected at listing, 1, 3 and 5 years post-transplant (diet and exercise were unavailable). CVH was scored by summing individual metrics: ideal = 2, intermediate = 1, and poor = 0 points; total scores of 8-10 points were considered high (favorable). CVH was compared between HT patients and the US pediatric population (GP) utilizing NHANES 2007-2016. Logistic regression was performed to examine the association of CVH 1 year post-transplant with a composite adverse outcome (death, re-listing, coronary vasculopathy, or chronic kidney disease) 3 years post-transplant. Results: We included 110 HT patients (median age at HT: 6 years [range 0.1-21]) and 19,081 NHANES participants. CVH scores among HT patients were generally high at listing (75%), 1 (74%), 3 (87%) and 5 (76%) years post-transplant and similar to GP, but some metrics (e.g., glucose) were worse among HT patients. Among HT patients, CVH was poorer with older age and non-Caucasian race/ethnicity. Per 1-point higher CVH score, the demographic-adjusted OR for adverse outcomes was 0.95 (95% CI, 0.7-1.4). Conclusions: HT patients had generally favorable CVH, but some metrics were unfavorable and CVH varied by age and race/ethnicity. No significant association was detected between CVH and adverse outcomes in this small sample, but study in a larger sample is warranted.