• Diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers in oligometastatic non-small cell lung cancer: A literature review

      Cortinovis, Diego; Malapelle, Umberto; Pagni, Fabio; Russo, Alessandro; Banna, Giuseppe Luigi; Sala, Elisa; Rolfo, Christian (AME Publishing Company, 2021-07-01)
      Objective: This review aims to summarize the possibilities of recently discovered molecular diagnostic techniques in lung cancer, by evaluating their impact on diagnosis, monitoring, and prognosis in oligometastatic disease. Background: Oligometastatic non-small cell lung cancer (OM-NSCLC) is currently defined based on morphological rather than biological features. Major advances in the detection of molecular biomarkers in cell-free tumoral DNA and the models of oncogene addiction make as feasible an early diagnosis and guide the therapeutic decision-making progress to improve the prognosis. Methods: This narrative review EXAMINES current approaches of diagnosis, monitoring, and prognosis of OM-NSCLC and describes the fast-evolving therapeutic scenario of this disease. We provide an overview of the powerful capability of liquid biopsy techniques applied to blood and fluid and we focus on the technological advancement of circulant biomolecular factors in OM NSCLC pathology, starting from apparently simpler models such as oncogene addicted tumors to evaluate themselves in the light of treatment with immune-checkpoint inhibitors. Conclusions: A better understanding of spatial and temporal evolution of oligometastatic diseases would contribute to a more accurate diagnosis and tailored treatment. Data from prospective clinical trials in the early stage of disease, coupled with knowledge of genetic characteristics of lung tumors, are warranted. These efforts would lead to improving the possibility to eradicate the residual disease in these low burden tumoral settings, thus enhancing the definitive cure perspectives. © Translational Lung Cancer Research. All rights reserved.