• HVAD to HeartMate 3 Left Ventricular Assist Device Exchange: Best Practices Recommendations.

      Salerno, Christopher T; Hayward, Christopher; Hall, Shelley; Goldstein, Daniel; Saeed, Diyar; Schmitto, Jan; Kaczorowski, David; Molina, Ezequiel; Zimpfer, Daniel; Tsui, Steven; et al. (Elsevier, 2022-03-18)
      The HeartWare HVAD System (Medtronic) is a durable implantable left ventricular assist device that has been implanted in approximately 20,000 patients worldwide for bridge to transplant and destination therapy indications. In December 2020, Medtronic issued an Urgent Medical Device Communication informing clinicians of a critical device malfunction in which the HVAD may experience a delay or failure to restart after elective or accidental discontinuation of pump operation. Moreover, evolving retrospective comparative effectiveness studies of patients supported with the HVAD demonstrated a significantly higher risk of stroke and all-cause mortality when compared with a newer generation of a commercially available durable left ventricular assist device. Considering the totality of this new information on HVAD performance and the availability of an alternate commercially available device, Medtronic halted the sale and distribution of the HVAD System in June 2021. The decision to remove the HVAD from commercial distribution now requires the use of the HeartMate 3 left ventricular assist system (Abbott, Inc) if a patient previously implanted with an HVAD requires a pump exchange. The goal of this document is to review important differences in the design of the HVAD and HeartMate 3 that are relevant to the medical management of patients supported with these devices, and to assess the technical aspects of an HVAD-to-HeartMate 3 exchange. This document provides the best available evidence that supports best practices.
    • Time in Therapeutic Range Significantly Impacts Survival and Adverse Events in Destination Therapy Patients.

      Macaluso, Gregory P; Pagani, Francis D; Slaughter, Mark S; Milano, Carmelo A; Feller, Erika D; Tatooles, Antone J; Rogers, Joseph G; Wieselthaler, Georg M
      The study aim was to examine the impact time in therapeutic range (TTR, International Normalized Ratio [INR] 2.0-3.0) has on survival and adverse events in patients receiving the HeartWare HVAD System in the ENDURANCE and ENDURANCE Supplemental Trials. Evaluable subjects (n = 495) had >1 INR value recorded 1-24 months postimplant and were categorized as: low TTR (10-39%), moderate TTR (40-69%), and high TTR (≥70%). Baseline characteristics, adverse events, and survival were analyzed. Low TTR patients experienced higher rates of major bleeding (1.69 vs. 0.54 events per patient year [EPPY]; p < 0.001), GI bleeding (1.22 vs. 0.38 EPPY; p < 0.001), stroke (0.47 vs. 0.17 EPPY; p < 0.001), thrombus requiring exchange (0.05 vs. 0.01 EPPY; p = 0.02), infection (1.44 vs. 0.69 EPPY; p < 0.001), and renal dysfunction (0.23 vs. 0.05 EPPY; p < 0.001) compared with high TTR. Moderate TTR had higher rates of major bleeding (0.75 vs. 0.54 EPPY; p < 0.001), thrombus requiring exchange (0.05 vs. 0.01 EPPY; p = 0.007), cardiac arrhythmia (0.32 vs. 0.24 EPPY; p = 0.04), and infection (0.90 vs. 0.69 EPPY; p = 0.001) compared with high TTR. Two year survival was greater among moderate and high versus low cohorts (Log-rank p = 0.001). The significant reduction in morbidity and mortality in destination therapy (DT) HVAD patients with well-controlled TTR (≥70%) emphasizes the importance of vigilant anticoagulation management.