• Corneal Epithelial Findings in Patients with Multiple Myeloma Treated with Antibody–Drug Conjugate Belantamab Mafodotin in the Pivotal, Randomized, DREAMM-2 Study

      Farooq, Asim V.; Degli Esposti, Simona; Popat, Rakesh; Thulasi, Praneetha; Lonial, Sagar; Nooka, Ajay K.; Jakubowiak, Andrzej; Sborov, Douglas; Zaugg, Brian E.; Badros, Ashraf Z.; et al. (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2020-07-25)
      Introduction: Patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM) represent an unmet clinical need. Belantamab mafodotin (belamaf; GSK2857916) is a first-in-class antibody–drug conjugate (ADC; or immunoconjugate) that delivers a cytotoxic payload, monomethyl auristatin F (MMAF), to myeloma cells. In the phase II DREAMM-2 study (NCT03525678), single-agent belamaf (2.5 mg/kg) demonstrated clinically meaningful anti-myeloma activity (overall response rate 32%) in patients with heavily pretreated disease. Microcyst-like epithelial changes (MECs) were common, consistent with reports from other MMAF-containing ADCs. Methods: Corneal examination findings from patients in DREAMM-2 were reviewed, and the clinical descriptions and accompanying images (slit lamp microscopy and in vivo confocal microscopy [IVCM]) of representative events were selected. A literature review on corneal events reported with other ADCs was performed. Results: In most patients receiving single-agent belamaf (72%; 68/95), MECs were observed by slit lamp microscopy early in treatment (69% had their first event by dose 4). However, IVCM revealed hyperreflective material. Blurred vision (25%) and dry eye (15%) were commonly reported symptoms. Management of MECs included dose delays (47%)/reductions (25%), with few patients discontinuing due to MECs (1%). The first event resolved in most patients (grade ≥2 MECs and visual acuity[each 77%], blurred vision [67%], and dry eye [86%]), with no reports of permanent vision loss to date. A literature review confirmed that similar MECs were reported with other ADCs; however, event management strategies varied. The pathophysiology of MECs is unclear, though the ADC cytotoxic payload may contribute to on- or off-target effects on corneal epithelial cells. Conclusion: Single-agent belamaf represents a new treatment option for patients with RRMM. As with other ADCs, MECs were observed and additional research is warranted to determine their pathophysiology. A multidisciplinary approach, involving close collaboration between eye care professionals and hematologist/oncologists, is needed to determine appropriate diagnosis and management of these patients. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier, NCT03525678. © 2020, The Author(s).
    • Correction to: Corneal Epithelial Findings in Patients with Multiple Myeloma Treated with Antibody–Drug Conjugate Belantamab Mafodotin in the Pivotal, Randomized, DREAMM-2 Study (Ophthalmology and Therapy, (2020), 10.1007/s40123-020-00280-8)

      Farooq, Asim V.; Degli Esposti, Simona; Popat, Rakesh; Thulasi, Praneetha; Lonial, Sagar; Nooka, Ajay K.; Jakubowiak, Andrzej; Sborov, Douglas; Zaugg, Brian E.; Badros, Ashraf Z.; et al. (Springer Nature, 2020-09-12)
      The authors of the above mentioned article would like to highlight the corrections in https://doi.org/10.1007/s40123-020-00289-z, based upon recent changes to the FDA label and guidance on the use of belamaf.
    • Longer term outcomes with single-agent belantamab mafodotin in patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma: 13-month follow-up from the pivotal DREAMM-2 study

      Lonial, Sagar; Lee, Hans C; Badros, Ashraf; Trudel, Suzanne; Nooka, Ajay K; Chari, Ajai; Abdallah, Al-Ola; Callander, Natalie; Sborov, Douglas; Suvannasankha, Attaya; et al. (Wiley-Blackwell, 2021-07-27)
      BACKGROUND: On the basis of the DREAMM-2 study (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT03525678), single-agent belantamab mafodotin (belamaf) was approved for patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM) who received ≥4 prior therapies, including anti-CD38 therapy. The authors investigated longer term efficacy and safety outcomes in DREAMM-2 after 13 months of follow-up among patients who received belamaf 2.5 mg/kg. METHODS: DREAMM-2 is an ongoing, phase 2, open-label, 2-arm study investigating belamaf (2.5 or 3.4 mg/kg) in patients with RRMM who had disease progression after ≥3 lines of therapy and were refractory to immunomodulatory drugs and proteasome inhibitors and refractory and/or intolerant to an anti-CD38 therapy. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients that achieved an overall response, assessed by an independent review committee. RESULTS: As of January 31, 2020, 10% of patients still received belamaf 2.5 mg/kg. Thirty-one of 97 patients (32%; 97.5% confidence interval [CI], 21.7%-43.6%) achieved an overall response, and 18 responders achieved a very good partial response or better. Median estimated duration of response, overall survival, and progression-free survival were 11.0 months (95% CI, 4.2 months to not reached), 13.7 months (95% CI, 9.9 months to not reached), and 2.8 months (95% CI, 1.6-3.6 months), respectively. Response and survival outcomes in patients who had high-risk cytogenetics or renal impairment were consistent with outcomes in the overall population. Outcomes were poorer in patients with extramedullary disease. In patients who had a clinical response and prolonged dose delays (>63 days; mainly because of corneal events), 88% maintained or deepened responses during their first prolonged dose delay. Overall, there were no new safety signals during this follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Extended follow-up confirms sustained clinical activity without new safety signals with belamaf in this heavily pretreated patient population with RRMM. © 2021 The Authors.
    • Management of belantamab mafodotin-associated corneal events in patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM)

      Lonial, Sagar; Nooka, Ajay K; Thulasi, Praneetha; Badros, Ashraf Z; Jeng, Bennie H; Callander, Natalie S; Potter, Heather A; Sborov, Douglas; Zaugg, Brian E; Popat, Rakesh; et al. (Springer Nature, 2021-05-26)
      Belantamab mafodotin (belamaf) demonstrated deep and durable responses in patients with heavily pretreated relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM) in DREAMM-2 (NCT03525678). Corneal events, specifically keratopathy (including superficial punctate keratopathy and/or microcyst-like epithelial changes (MECs), eye examination findings with/without symptoms), were common, consistent with reports from other antibody-drug conjugates. Given the novel nature of corneal events in RRMM management, guidelines are required for their prompt identification and appropriate management. Eye examination findings from DREAMM-2 and insights from hematology/oncology investigators and ophthalmologists, including corneal specialists, were collated and used to develop corneal event management guidelines. The following recommendations were formulated: close collaboration among hematologist/oncologists and eye care professionals is needed, in part, to provide optimal care in relation to the belamaf benefit-risk profile. Patients receiving belamaf should undergo eye examinations before and during every treatment cycle and promptly upon worsening of symptoms. Severity of corneal events should be determined based on corneal examination findings and changes in best-corrected visual acuity. Treatment decisions, including dose modifications, should be based on the most severe finding present. These guidelines are recommended for the assessment and management of belamaf-associated ocular events to help mitigate ocular risk and enable patients to continue to experience a clinical benefit with belamaf.