• Digitally recorded and remotely classified lung auscultation compared with conventional stethoscope classifications among children aged 1-59 months enrolled in the Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health (PERCH) case-control study.

      Park, Daniel E; Watson, Nora L; Focht, Christopher; Feikin, Daniel; Hammit, Laura; Brooks, W Abdullah; Howie, Stephen R C; Kotloff, Karen L; Levine, Orin S; Madhi, Shabir A; et al.
      We collected digitally recorded lung sounds, conventional auscultation classifications and clinical measures and samples from children with pneumonia (cases) in low-income and middle-income countries. Physicians remotely classified recordings as crackles, wheeze or uninterpretable. Conventional and digital auscultation concordance was evaluated among 383 pneumonia cases with concurrently (within 2 hours) collected conventional and digital auscultation classifications using prevalence-adjusted bias-adjusted kappa (PABAK). Using an expanded set of 737 cases that also incorporated the non-concurrently collected assessments, we evaluated whether associations between auscultation classifications and clinical or aetiological findings differed between conventional or digital auscultation using χ2 tests and logistic regression adjusted for age, sex and site.
    • Epidemiology of the Rhinovirus (RV) in African and Southeast Asian Children: A Case-Control Pneumonia Etiology Study

      Baillie, Vicky L; Moore, David P; Mathunjwa, Azwifarwi; Baggett, Henry C; Brooks, Abdullah; Feikin, Daniel R; Hammitt, Laura L; Howie, Stephen R C; Knoll, Maria Deloria; Kotloff, Karen L; et al. (MDPI AG, 2021-06-27)
      Rhinovirus (RV) is commonly detected in asymptomatic children; hence, its pathogenicity during childhood pneumonia remains controversial. We evaluated RV epidemiology in HIV-uninfected children hospitalized with clinical pneumonia and among community controls. PERCH was a case-control study that enrolled children (1-59 months) hospitalized with severe and very severe pneumonia per World Health Organization clinical criteria and age-frequency-matched community controls in seven countries. Nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal swabs were collected for all participants, combined, and tested for RV and 18 other respiratory viruses using the Fast Track multiplex real-time PCR assay. RV detection was more common among cases (24%) than controls (21%) (aOR = 1.5, 95%CI:1.3-1.6). This association was driven by the children aged 12-59 months, where 28% of cases vs. 18% of controls were RV-positive (aOR = 2.1, 95%CI:1.8-2.5). Wheezing was 1.8-fold (aOR 95%CI:1.4-2.2) more prevalent among pneumonia cases who were RV-positive vs. RV-negative. Of the RV-positive cases, 13% had a higher probability (>75%) that RV was the cause of their pneumonia based on the PERCH integrated etiology analysis; 99% of these cases occurred in children over 12 months in Bangladesh. RV was commonly identified in both cases and controls and was significantly associated with severe pneumonia status among children over 12 months of age, particularly those in Bangladesh. RV-positive pneumonia was associated with wheezing.
    • The Etiology of Childhood Pneumonia in Mali: Findings From the Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health (PERCH) Study

      Tapia, Milagritos D; Sylla, Mamadou; Driscoll, Amanda J; Touré, Aliou; Kourouma, Nana; Sissoko, Seydou; Tamboura, Boubou; Diakité, Abdoul Aziz; Panchalingam, Sandra; Keïta, Adama M; et al. (Wolters Kluwer Health, 2021-09-01)
      Background: We present findings from the Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health (PERCH) site in Bamako, Mali. Methods: Cases were patients 28 days to 59 months of age, admitted to hospital with severe or very severe pneumonia (2005 World Health Organization definition). Community controls were frequency matched by age. Both provided nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swabs for multiplex polymerase chain reaction and Streptococcus pneumoniae culture. Cases underwent blood culture and induced sputum culture for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. A subset had pleural fluid and lung aspirates collected for culture and polymerase chain reaction. Primary analyses included participants with negative or unknown HIV status (HIV-) and cases with abnormal chest radiographs (CXR+). Cases and controls were compared using logistic regression adjusting for age. Etiologic fractions were calculated by a Bayesian nested partially latent class analysis, the PERCH integrated analysis. Results: Between January 1, 2012, and January 14, 2014, we enrolled 241 CXR+/HIV- cases and 725 HIV- controls. Compared with controls, cases were more likely to have moderate-to-severe wasting (43.1% vs. 14.1%, P < 0.001) and stunting (26.6% vs. 9.4%, P < 0.001). Predominant etiologies were respiratory syncytial virus [24.0%; 95% credible interval (CrI): 18.3%-31.1%], S. pneumoniae (15.2%; 95% CrI: 9.5-21.6), human metapneumovirus (11.8%; 95% CrI: 8.3%-16.2%) and parainfluenza virus type 3 (9.0%; 95% CrI: 5.8%-13.3%). Case fatality was 13.3%, with Staphylococcus aureus, Pneumocystis jirovecii and Haemophilus influenzae type b predominating (40% of fatal cases). Conclusions: PERCH uncovered high case fatality among children with severe pneumonia in Mali, highlighting a role for new interventions (eg, respiratory syncytial virus vaccines) and a need to improve vaccine coverage and strengthen healthcare delivery.
    • The Etiology of Pneumonia From Analysis of Lung Aspirate and Pleural Fluid Samples: Findings From the Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health (PERCH) Study.

      Ebruke, Bernard E; Deloria Knoll, Maria; Haddix, Meredith; Zaman, Syed M A; Prosperi, Christine; Feikin, Daniel R; Hammitt, Laura L; Levine, Orin S; O'Brien, Katherine L; Murdoch, David R; et al. (Oxford University Press, 2021-12-06)
      BACKGROUND: An improved understanding of childhood pneumonia etiology is required to inform prevention and treatment strategies. Lung aspiration is the gold standard specimen for pneumonia diagnostics. We report findings from analyses of lung and pleural aspirates collected in the Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health (PERCH) study. METHODS: The PERCH study enrolled children aged 1-59 months hospitalized with World Health Organization-defined severe or very severe pneumonia in 7 countries in Africa and Asia. Percutaneous transthoracic lung aspiration (LA) and pleural fluid (PF) aspiration was performed on a sample of pneumonia cases with radiological consolidation and/or PF in 4 countries. Venous blood and nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal swabs were collected from all cases. Multiplex quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and routine microbiologic culture were applied to clinical specimens. RESULTS: Of 44 LAs performed within 3 days of admission on 622 eligible cases, 13 (30%) had a pathogen identified by either culture (5/44) or by PCR (11/29). A pathogen was identified in 12/14 (86%) PF specimens tested by either culture (9/14) or PCR (9/11). Bacterial pathogens were identified more frequently than viruses. All but 1 of the cases with a virus identified were coinfected with bacterial pathogens. Streptococcus pneumoniae (9/44 [20%]) and Staphylococcus aureus (7/14 [50%]) were the predominant pathogens identified in LA and PF, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Bacterial pathogens predominated in this selected subgroup of PERCH participants drawn from those with radiological consolidation or PF, with S. pneumoniae and S. aureus the leading pathogens identified. © The Author(s) 2020.
    • Global burden of acute lower respiratory infection associated with human parainfluenza virus in children younger than 5 years for 2018: a systematic review and meta-analysis

      Wang, Xin; Li, You; Deloria-Knoll, Maria; Madhi, Shabir A; Cohen, Cheryl; Arguelles, Vina Lea; Basnet, Sudha; Bassat, Quique; Brooks, W Abdullah; Echavarria, Marcela; et al. (Elsevier BV, 2021-06-21)
      Background: Human parainfluenza virus (hPIV) is a common virus in childhood acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI). However, no estimates have been made to quantify the global burden of hPIV in childhood ALRI. We aimed to estimate the global and regional hPIV-associated and hPIV-attributable ALRI incidence, hospital admissions, and mortality for children younger than 5 years and stratified by 0-5 months, 6-11 months, and 12-59 months of age. Methods: We did a systematic review of hPIV-associated ALRI burden studies published between Jan 1, 1995, and Dec 31, 2020, found in MEDLINE, Embase, Global Health, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Web of Science, Global Health Library, three Chinese databases, and Google search, and also identified a further 41 high-quality unpublished studies through an international research network. We included studies reporting community incidence of ALRI with laboratory-confirmed hPIV; hospital admission rates of ALRI or ALRI with hypoxaemia in children with laboratory-confirmed hPIV; proportions of patients with ALRI admitted to hospital with laboratory-confirmed hPIV; or in-hospital case-fatality ratios (hCFRs) of ALRI with laboratory-confirmed hPIV. We used a modified Newcastle-Ottawa Scale to assess risk of bias. We analysed incidence, hospital admission rates, and hCFRs of hPIV-associated ALRI using a generalised linear mixed model. Adjustment was made to account for the non-detection of hPIV-4. We estimated hPIV-associated ALRI cases, hospital admissions, and in-hospital deaths using adjusted incidence, hospital admission rates, and hCFRs. We estimated the overall hPIV-associated ALRI mortality (both in-hospital and out-hospital mortality) on the basis of the number of in-hospital deaths and care-seeking for child pneumonia. We estimated hPIV-attributable ALRI burden by accounting for attributable fractions for hPIV in laboratory-confirmed hPIV cases and deaths. Sensitivity analyses were done to validate the estimates of overall hPIV-associated ALRI mortality and hPIV-attributable ALRI mortality. The systematic review protocol was registered on PROSPERO (CRD42019148570). Findings: 203 studies were identified, including 162 hPIV-associated ALRI burden studies and a further 41 high-quality unpublished studies. Globally in 2018, an estimated 18·8 million (uncertainty range 12·8-28·9) ALRI cases, 725 000 (433 000-1 260 000) ALRI hospital admissions, and 34 400 (16 400-73 800) ALRI deaths were attributable to hPIVs among children younger than 5 years. The age-stratified and region-stratified analyses suggested that about 61% (35% for infants aged 0-5 months and 26% for 6-11 months) of the hospital admissions and 66% (42% for infants aged 0-5 months and 24% for 6-11 months) of the in-hospital deaths were in infants, and 70% of the in-hospital deaths were in low-income and lower-middle-income countries. Between 73% and 100% (varying by outcome) of the data had a low risk in study design; the proportion was 46-65% for the adjustment for health-care use, 59-77% for patient groups excluded, 54-93% for case definition, 42-93% for sampling strategy, and 67-77% for test methods. Heterogeneity in estimates was found between studies for each outcome. Interpretation: We report the first global burden estimates of hPIV-associated and hPIV-attributable ALRI in young children. Globally, approximately 13% of ALRI cases, 4-14% of ALRI hospital admissions, and 4% of childhood ALRI mortality were attributable to hPIV. These numbers indicate a potentially notable burden of hPIV in ALRI morbidity and mortality in young children. These estimates should encourage and inform investment to accelerate the development of targeted interventions.
    • Introduction to the Site-specific Etiologic Results From the Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health (PERCH) Study

      Deloria Knoll, Maria; Prosperi, Christine; Baggett, Henry C; Brooks, W Abdullah; Feikin, Daniel R; Hammitt, Laura L; Howie, Stephen R C; Kotloff, Karen L; Madhi, Shabir A; Murdoch, David R; et al. (Wolters Kluwer Health, 2021-09-01)
      The Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health (PERCH) study evaluated the etiology of severe and very severe pneumonia in children hospitalized in 7 African and Asian countries. Here, we summarize the highlights of in-depth site-specific etiology analyses published separately in this issue, including how etiology varies by age, mortality status, malnutrition, severity, HIV status, and more. These site-specific results impart important lessons that can inform disease control policy implications.
    • Upper Respiratory Tract Co-detection of Human Endemic Coronaviruses and High-density Pneumococcus Associated With Increased Severity Among HIV-Uninfected Children Under 5 Years Old in the PERCH Study

      Park, Daniel E; Higdon, Melissa M; Prosperi, Christine; Baggett, Henry C; Brooks, W Abdullah; Feikin, Daniel R; Hammitt, Laura L; Howie, Steve R C; Kotloff, Karen L; Levine, Orin S; et al. (Wolters Kluwer Health, 2021-06-01)
      Background: Severity of viral respiratory illnesses can be increased with bacterial coinfection and can vary by sex, but influence of coinfection and sex on human endemic coronavirus (CoV) species, which generally cause mild to moderate respiratory illness, is unknown. We evaluated CoV and pneumococcal co-detection by sex in childhood pneumonia. Methods: In the 2011-2014 Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health study, nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal (NP/OP) swabs and other samples were collected from 3981 children <5 years hospitalized with severe or very severe pneumonia in 7 countries. Severity by NP/OP detection status of CoV (NL63, 229E, OC43 or HKU1) and high-density (≥6.9 log10 copies/mL) pneumococcus (HDSpn) by real-time polymerase chain reaction was assessed by sex using logistic regression adjusted for age and site. Results: There were 43 (1.1%) CoV+/HDSpn+, 247 CoV+/HDSpn-, 449 CoV-/HDSpn+ and 3149 CoV-/HDSpn- cases with no significant difference in co-detection frequency by sex (range 51.2%-64.0% male, P = 0.06). More CoV+/HDSpn+ pneumonia was very severe compared with other groups for both males (13/22, 59.1% versus range 29.1%-34.7%, P = 0.04) and females (10/21, 47.6% versus 32.5%-43.5%, P = 0.009), but only male CoV+/HDSpn+ required supplemental oxygen more frequently (45.0% versus 20.6%-28.6%, P < 0.001) and had higher mortality (35.0% versus 5.3%-7.1%, P = 0.004) than other groups. For females with CoV+/HDSpn+, supplemental oxygen was 25.0% versus 24.8%-33.3% (P = 0.58) and mortality was 10.0% versus 9.2%-12.9% (P = 0.69). Conclusions: Co-detection of endemic CoV and HDSpn was rare in children hospitalized with pneumonia, but associated with higher severity and mortality in males. Findings may warrant investigation of differences in severity by sex with co-detection of HDSpn and SARS-CoV-2.