• The triad hsp60-mirnas-extracellular vesicles in brain tumors: Assessing its components for understanding tumorigenesis and monitoring patients

      Graziano, Francesca; Iacopino, Domenico Gerardo; Cammarata, Giacomo; Scalia, Gianluca; Campanella, Claudia; Giannone, Antonino Giulio; Porcasi, Rossana; Florena, Ada Maria; De Macario, Everly Conway; Macario, Alberto J.L.; et al. (MDPI AG, 2021-03-23)
      Brain tumors have a poor prognosis and progress must be made for developing efficacious treatments, but for this to occur their biology and interaction with the host must be elucidated beyond current knowledge. What has been learned from other tumors may be applied to study brain tumors, for example, the role of Hsp60, miRNAs, and extracellular vesicles (EVs) in the mechanisms of cell proliferation and dissemination, and resistance to immune attack and anticancer drugs. It has been established that Hsp60 increases in cancer cells, in which it occurs not only in the mitochondria but also in the cytosol and plasma-cell membrane and it is released in EVs into the extracellular space and in circulation. There is evidence suggesting that these EVs interact with cells near and far from their original cell and that this interaction has an impact on the functions of the target cell. It is assumed that this crosstalk between cancer and host cells favors carcinogenesis in various ways. We, therefore, propose to study the triad Hsp60-related miRNAs-EVs in brain tumors and have standardized methods for the purpose. These revealed that EVs with Hsp60 and related miRNAs increase in patients’ blood in a manner that reflects disease status. The means are now available to monitor brain tumor patients by measuring the triad and to dissect its effects on target cells in vitro, and in experimental models in vivo. © 2021 by the authors.