• Characterization of acetyl-CoA carboxylases in the basal dinoflagellate amphidinium carterae

      Haq, S.; Bachvaroff, T.R.; Place, A.R. (MDPI AG, 2017)
      Dinoflagellates make up a diverse array of fatty acids and polyketides. A necessary precursor for their synthesis is malonyl-CoA formed by carboxylating acetyl CoA using the enzyme acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC). To date, information on dinoflagellate ACC is limited. Through transcriptome analysis in Amphidinium carterae, we found three full-length homomeric type ACC sequences; no heteromeric type ACC sequences were found. We assigned the putative cellular location for these ACCs based on transit peptide predictions. Using streptavidinWestern blotting along with mass spectrometry proteomics, we validated the presence of ACC proteins. Additional bands showing other biotinylated proteins were also observed. Transcript abundance for these ACCs follow the global pattern of expression for dinoflagellate mRNA messages over a diel cycle. This is one of the few descriptions at the transcriptomic and protein level of ACCs in dinoflagellates. This work provides insight into the enzymes which make the CoA precursors needed for fatty acid and toxin synthesis in dinoflagellates. Copyright 2017 by the authors.