• Multicenter Retrospective Review of Ketamine Use in the ICU.

      Groth, Christine M; Droege, Christopher A; Connor, Kathryn A; Kaukeinen, Kimberly; Acquisto, Nicole M; Chui, Sai Ho J; Cucci, Michaelia D; Dixit, Deepali; Flannery, Alexander H; Gustafson, Kyle A; et al. (Wolters Kluwer Health, 2022-02-10)
      A total of 390 patients were included (median age, 54.5 yr; interquartile range, 39-65 yr; 61% males). Primary ICU types were medical (35.3%), surgical (23.3%), and trauma (17.7%). Most common indications were analgesia/sedation (n = 357, 91.5%). Starting doses were 0.2 mg/kg/hr (0.1-0.5 mg/kg/hr) and continued for 1.6 days (0.6-2.9 d). Hemodynamics in the first 4 hours after ketamine were variable (hypertension 24.0%, hypotension 23.5%, tachycardia 19.5%, bradycardia 2.3%); other adverse effects were minimal. Compared with 24 hours prior, there was a significant increase in proportion of time spent within goal pain score after ketamine initiation (24 hr prior: 68.9% [66.7-72.6%], 0-24 hr: 78.6% [74.3-82.5%], 25-48 hr: 80.3% [74.6-84.3%]; p < 0.001) and time spent within goal sedation score (24 hr prior: 57.1% [52.5-60.0%], 0-24 hr: 64.1% [60.7-67.2%], 25-48 hr: 68.9% [65.5-79.5%]; p < 0.001). There was also a significant reduction in IV morphine (mg) equivalents (24 hr prior: 120 [25-400], 0-24 hr: 118 [10-363], 25-48 hr: 80 [5-328]; p < 0.005), midazolam (mg) equivalents (24 hr prior: 11 [4-67], 0-24 hr: 6 [0-68], 25-48 hr: 3 [0-57]; p < 0.001), propofol (mg) (24 hr prior: 942 [223-4,018], 0-24 hr: 160 [0-2,776], 25-48 hr: 0 [0-1,859]; p < 0.001), and dexmedetomidine (µg) (24 hr prior: 1,025 [276-1,925], 0-24 hr: 285 [0-1,283], 25-48 hr: 0 [0-826]; p < 0.001). There was no difference in proportion of time spent positive for delirium (24 hr prior: 43.0% [17.0-47.0%], 0-24 hr: 39.5% [27.0-43.8%], 25-48 hr: 0% [0-43.7%]; p = 0.233). Limitations to these data include lack of a comparator group, potential for confounders and selection bias, and varying pain and sedation practices that may have changed since completion of the study.