• Id1 and PD-1 Combined Blockade Impairs Tumor Growth and Survival of -mutant Lung Cancer by Stimulating PD-L1 Expression and Tumor Infiltrating CD8 T Cells.

      Baraibar, Iosune; Roman, Marta; Rodríguez-Remírez, María; López, Inés; Vilalta, Anna; Guruceaga, Elisabeth; Ecay, Margarita; Collantes, María; Lozano, Teresa; Alignani, Diego; et al. (MDPI AG, 2020-10-28)
      The use of PD-1/PD-L1 checkpoint inhibitors in advanced NSCLC is associated with longer survival. However, many patients do not benefit from PD-1/PD-L1 blockade, largely because of immunosuppression. New immunotherapy-based combinations are under investigation in an attempt to improve outcomes. Id1 (inhibitor of differentiation 1) is involved in immunosuppression. In this study, we explored the potential synergistic effect of the combination of Id1 inhibition and pharmacological PD-L1 blockade in three different syngeneic murine KRAS-mutant lung adenocarcinoma models. TCGA analysis demonstrated a negative and statistically significant correlation between PD-L1 and Id1 expression levels. This observation was confirmed in vitro in human and murine KRAS-driven lung cancer cell lines. In vivo experiments in KRAS-mutant syngeneic and metastatic murine lung adenocarcinoma models showed that the combined blockade targeting Id1 and PD-1 was more effective than each treatment alone in terms of tumor growth impairment and overall survival improvement. Mechanistically, multiplex quantification of CD3+/CD4+/CD8+ T cells and flow cytometry analysis showed that combined therapy favors tumor infiltration by CD8+ T cells, whilst in vivo CD8+ T cell depletion led to tumor growth restoration. Co-culture assays using CD8+ cells and tumor cells showed that T cells present a higher antitumor effect when tumor cells lack Id1 expression. These findings highlight that Id1 blockade may contribute to a significant immune enhancement of antitumor efficacy of PD-1 inhibitors by increasing PD-L1 expression and harnessing tumor infiltration of CD8+ T lymphocytes.