• Novel calcium phosphate cement with metformin-loaded chitosan for odontogenic differentiation of human dental pulp cells

      Qin, W.; Chen, J.-Y.; Guo, J. (Hindawi Limited, 2018)
      Metformin is an old and widely accepted first-line drug for treating type 2 diabetes. Our previous studies demonstrate that metformin can stimulate the osteo/odontogenic differentiation of human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived mesenchymal stem cells and human dental pulp cells (DPCs). Due to the rapid dilution of metformin from the defect area, the aim of this study was to develop a drug delivery system with controlled release of metformin to promote cell viability and odontogenic differentiation of DPCs favoring dentin regeneration. Calcium phosphate cement (CPC) containing chitosan and metformin as a scaffold was synthesized. DPCs were seeded onto the scaffold, and the viability and proliferation were evaluated at several time points. For osteogenic differentiation analysis, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity was tested, cells were stained with Alizarin Red, and the expression of odontogenic markers was evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction. DPCs remained viable and attached well to the CPC-chitosan composite scaffold. Moreover, the addition of metformin to the CPC-chitosan composite did not adversely affect cell proliferation, compared to that of CPC control. Our data further revealed that the novel CPC-chitosan-metformin composite enhanced the odontogenic differentiation of DPCs, as evidenced by higher ALP activity, elevated expression of odontoblastic markers, and strong mineral deposition. These results suggest that the new CPC-chitosan-metformin composite is a highly promising scaffold with the potential for tissue engineering applications including dentin regeneration. Copyright Copyright 2018 Wei Qin et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution.