• Conserved residues in the extracellular loop 2 regulate Stachel-mediated activation of ADGRG2

      Gad, Abanoub A; Azimzadeh, Pedram; Balenga, Nariman (Springer Nature, 2021-07-07)
      Cleavage and dissociation of a large N-terminal fragment and the consequent unmasking of a short sequence (Stachel) remaining on the N-terminus have been proposed as mechanisms of activation of some members of the adhesion G protein-coupled receptor (aGPCR) family. However, the identity of residues that play a role in the activation of aGPCRs by the cognate Stachel remains largely unknown. Protein sequence alignments revealed a conserved stretch of residues in the extracellular loop 2 (ECL2) of all 33 members of the aGPCR family. ADGRG2, an orphan aGPCR, plays a major role in male fertility, Ewing sarcoma cell proliferation, and parathyroid cell function. We used ADGRG2 as a model aGPCR and generated mutants of the conserved residues in the ECL2 via site-directed mutagenesis. We show that tryptophan and isoleucine in the ECL2 are essential for receptor stability and surface expression in the HEK293 cells. By adjusting the receptor surface expression levels, we show that mutation of these residues of ECL2 ablates the Stachel-mediated activation of multiple signaling pathways of ADGRG2. This study provides a novel understanding of the role of the ECL2 in Stachel-mediated signaling and degradation of ADGRG2, which may lay the foundation for the rational design of therapeutics to target aGPCRs.