• Prevalence of asymptomatic parasitemia and gametocytemia in hiv-infected children on differing antiretroviral therapy

      Hobbs, C.V.; Gabriel, E.E.; Kamthunzi, P. (American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 2018)
      Laboratory data and prior pediatric reports indicate that HIV protease inhibitor (PI)-based antiretroviral therapy (ARV) kills gametocytes and reduces rates of gametocytemia, but not asymptomatic parasitemia, in a high malaria-transmission area. To determine whether ARV regimen impacts these rates in areas with less-intense malaria transmission, we compared asymptomatic parasitemia and gametocytemia rates in HIV-infected children by ARV regimen in Lilongwe, Malawi, an area of low-to-moderate transmission intensity. HIV PI lopinavir-ritonavir (LPV-rtv) ARV-or non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor nevirapine ARV-treated children did not differ in the rates of polymerase chain reaction-detected asymptomatic parasitemia (relative risk [RR] 0.43 95% confidence interval [CI] [0.16, 1.18], P value 0.10) or microscopically detected gametocytemia with LPV-rtv ARV during symptomatic malaria (RR 0.4895%CI [0.22,1.04] P value 0.06). LPV-rtv ARV was not associated with reduced rates of asymptomatic parasitemia, or gametocytemia on days of symptomatic malaria episodes, in HIV-infected children. Larger studies should evaluate whether ARV impacts transmission. Copyright 2018 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.