• Molecular Basis of Selective Cytokine Signaling Inhibition by Antibodies Targeting a Shared Receptor.

      Fields, James K; Kihn, Kyle; Birkedal, Gabriel S; Klontz, Erik H; Sjöström, Kjell; Günther, Sebastian; Beadenkopf, Robert; Forsberg, Göran; Liberg, David; Snyder, Greg A; et al. (Frontiers Media S.A., 2021-12-24)
      Interleukin-1 (IL-1) family cytokines are potent mediators of inflammation, acting to coordinate local and systemic immune responses to a wide range of stimuli. Aberrant signaling by IL-1 family cytokine members, however, is linked to myriad inflammatory syndromes, autoimmune conditions and cancers. As such, blocking the inflammatory signals inherent to IL-1 family signaling is an established and expanding therapeutic strategy. While several FDA-approved IL-1 inhibitors exist, including an Fc fusion protein, a neutralizing antibody, and an antagonist cytokine, none specifically targets the co-receptor IL-1 receptor accessory protein (IL-1RAcP). Most IL-1 family cytokines form productive signaling complexes by binding first to their cognate receptors – IL-1RI for IL-1α and IL-1β; ST2 for IL-33; and IL-36R for IL-36α, IL-36β and IL-36γ – after which they recruit the shared secondary receptor IL-1RAcP to form a ternary cytokine/receptor/co-receptor complex. Recently, IL-1RAcP was identified as a biomarker for both AML and CML. IL-1RAcP has also been implicated in tumor progression in solid tumors and an anti-IL1RAP antibody (nadunolimab, CAN04) is in phase II clinical studies in pancreatic cancer and non-small cell lung cancer (NCT03267316). As IL-1RAcP is common to all of the abovementioned IL-1 family cytokines, targeting this co-receptor raises the possibility of selective signaling inhibition for different IL-1 family cytokines. Indeed, previous studies of IL-1β and IL-33 signaling complexes have revealed that these cytokines employ distinct mechanisms of IL-1RAcP recruitment even though their overall cytokine/receptor/co-receptor complexes are structurally similar. Here, using functional, biophysical, and structural analyses, we show that antibodies specific for IL-1RAcP can differentially block signaling by IL-1 family cytokines depending on the distinct IL-1RAcP epitopes that they engage. Our results indicate that targeting a shared cytokine receptor is a viable therapeutic strategy for selective cytokine signaling inhibition.
    • Molecular Basis of Selective Cytokine Signaling Inhibition by Antibodies Targeting a Shared Receptor.

      Fields, James K; Kihn, Kyle; Birkedal, Gabriel S; Klontz, Erik H; Sjöström, Kjell; Günther, Sebastian; Beadenkopf, Robert; Forsberg, Göran; Liberg, David; Snyder, Greg A; et al. (Frontiers Media S.A., 2021-12-24)
      Interleukin-1 (IL-1) family cytokines are potent mediators of inflammation, acting to coordinate local and systemic immune responses to a wide range of stimuli. Aberrant signaling by IL-1 family cytokine members, however, is linked to myriad inflammatory syndromes, autoimmune conditions and cancers. As such, blocking the inflammatory signals inherent to IL-1 family signaling is an established and expanding therapeutic strategy. While several FDA-approved IL-1 inhibitors exist, including an Fc fusion protein, a neutralizing antibody, and an antagonist cytokine, none specifically targets the co-receptor IL-1 receptor accessory protein (IL-1RAcP). Most IL-1 family cytokines form productive signaling complexes by binding first to their cognate receptors - IL-1RI for IL-1α and IL-1β; ST2 for IL-33; and IL-36R for IL-36α, IL-36β and IL-36γ - after which they recruit the shared secondary receptor IL-1RAcP to form a ternary cytokine/receptor/co-receptor complex. Recently, IL-1RAcP was identified as a biomarker for both AML and CML. IL-1RAcP has also been implicated in tumor progression in solid tumors and an anti-IL1RAP antibody (nadunolimab, CAN04) is in phase II clinical studies in pancreatic cancer and non-small cell lung cancer (NCT03267316). As IL-1RAcP is common to all of the abovementioned IL-1 family cytokines, targeting this co-receptor raises the possibility of selective signaling inhibition for different IL-1 family cytokines. Indeed, previous studies of IL-1β and IL-33 signaling complexes have revealed that these cytokines employ distinct mechanisms of IL-1RAcP recruitment even though their overall cytokine/receptor/co-receptor complexes are structurally similar. Here, using functional, biophysical, and structural analyses, we show that antibodies specific for IL-1RAcP can differentially block signaling by IL-1 family cytokines depending on the distinct IL-1RAcP epitopes that they engage. Our results indicate that targeting a shared cytokine receptor is a viable therapeutic strategy for selective cytokine signaling inhibition.