• Integrative analyses of circulating small rnas and kidney graft transcriptome in transplant glomerulopathy

      Kuscu, Canan; Kiran, Manjari; Mohammed, Akram; Kuscu, Cem; Satpathy, Sarthak; Wolen, Aaron; Bardhi, Elissa; Bajwa, Amandeep; Eason, James D.; Maluf, Daniel; et al. (MDPI AG, 2021-06-09)
      Transplant glomerulopathy develops through multiple mechanisms, including donor-specific antibodies, T cells and innate immunity. This study investigates circulating small RNA profiles in serum samples of kidney transplant recipients with biopsy-proven transplant glomerulopathy. Among total small RNA population, miRNAs were the most abundant species in the serum of kidney transplant patients. In addition, fragments arising from mature tRNA and rRNA were detected. Most of the tRNA fragments were generated from 5′ ends of mature tRNA and mainly from two parental tRNAs: tRNA-Gly and tRNA-Glu. Moreover, transplant patients with transplant glomerulopathy displayed a novel tRNA fragments signature. Gene expression analysis from al-lograft tissues demonstrated changes in canonical pathways related to immune activation such as iCos-iCosL signaling pathway in T helper cells, Th1 and Th2 activation pathway, and dendritic cell maturation. mRNA targets of down-regulated miRNAs such as miR-1224-5p, miR-4508, miR-320, miR-378a from serum were globally upregulated in tissue. Integration of serum miRNA profiles with tissue gene expression showed that changes in serum miRNAs support the role of T-cell mediated mechanisms in ongoing allograft injury. © 2021 by the authors.
    • Rapamycin alternatively modifies mitochondrial dynamics in dendritic cells to reduce kidney ischemic reperfusion injury

      Namwanje, Maria; Bisunke, Bijay; Rousselle, Thomas V.; Lamanilao, Gene G.; Sunder, Venkatadri S.; Patterson, Elizabeth C.; Kuscu, Canan; Kuscu, Cem; Maluf, Daniel; Kiran, Manjari; et al. (MDPI AG, 2021-05-20)
      Dendritic cells (DCs) are unique immune cells that can link innate and adaptive immune responses and Immunometabolism greatly impacts their phenotype. Rapamycin is a macrolide compound that has immunosuppressant functions and is used to prevent graft loss in kidney transplantation. The current study evaluated the therapeutic potential of ex-vivo rapamycin treated DCs to protect kidneys in a mouse model of acute kidney injury (AKI). For the rapamycin single (S) treatment (Rapa-S-DC), Veh-DCs were treated with rapamycin (10 ng/mL) for 1 h before LPS. In contrast, rapamycin multiple (M) treatment (Rapa-M-DC) were exposed to 3 treatments over 7 days. Only multiple ex-vivo rapamycin treatments of DCs induced a persistent reprogramming of mitochondrial metabolism. These DCs had 18-fold more mitochondria, had almost 4-fold higher oxygen consumption rates, and produced more ATP compared to Veh-DCs (Veh treated control DCs). Pathway analysis showed IL10 signaling as a major contributing pathway to the altered immunophenotype after Rapamycin treatment compared to vehicle with significantly lower cytokines Tnfa, Il1b, and Il6, while regulators of mitochondrial content Pgc1a, Tfam, and Ho1 remained elevated. Critically, adoptive transfer of rapamycin-treated DCs to WT recipients 24 h before bilateral kidney ischemia significantly protected the kidneys from injury with a significant 3-fold improvement in kidney function. Last, the infusion of DCs containing higher mitochondria numbers (treated ex-vivo with healthy isolated mitochondria (10 µg/mL) one day before) also partially protected the kidneys from IRI. These studies demonstrate that pre-emptive infusion of ex-vivo reprogrammed DCs that have higher mitochondria content has therapeutic capacity to induce an anti-inflammatory regulatory phenotype to protect kidneys from injury. © 2021 by the authors.