• Optimal Donor for African Americans with Hematologic Malignancy: HLA-Haploidentical Relative or Umbilical Cord Blood Transplant.

      Solomon, Scott R; St Martin, Andrew; Zhang, Mei-Jie; Ballen, Karen; Bashey, Asad; Battiwalla, Minoo; Baxter-Lowe, Lee Ann; Brunstein, Claudio; Chhabra, Saurabh; Perez, Miguel Angel Diaz; et al. (Elsevier Inc., 2020-07-07)
      Although hematopoietic cell transplantation from an HLA-matched unrelated donor is potentially curative for hematologic malignancies, survival is lower for African Americans compared with Caucasians. Because only approximately 20% of African Americans will have an HLA-matched unrelated donor, many of these patients undergo HLA-haploidentical relative or umbilical cord blood transplantation. In this study, we analyzed outcomes after HLA-haploidentical related donor (n = 249) and umbilical cord blood (n = 118) transplantations in African American patients with hematologic malignancy between 2008 and 2016. The predominant disease was acute myelogenous leukemia for recipients of both types of donor grafts. The incidences of grade II-IV and III-IV acute graft-versus-host disease were higher after umbilical cord blood transplantation compared with HLA-haploidentical relative transplantation (56% and 29%, respectively, versus 33% and 11%, respectively; P < .0001). The 2-year incidence of transplantation-related mortality adjusted for age and conditioning regimen intensity was higher after umbilical cord blood transplantation compared with HLA-haploidentical related donor transplantation (31% versus 18%; P = .008); however, there were no between-group differences in the 2-year adjusted incidence of relapse (30% versus 34%; P =. 51), overall survival (54% versus 57%; P =. 66), or disease-free survival (43% versus 47%; P =. 46). Our findings show that the use of HLA-haploidentical and umbilical cord blood transplants expands the access to transplantation with comparable leukemia-free and overall survival for African Americans with hematologic malignancies.
    • Planned Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor Adversely Impacts Survival after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation Performed with Thymoglobulin for Myeloid Malignancy

      Orfali, Nina; Zhang, Mei Jie; Allbee-Johnson, Mariam; Boelens, Jaap Jan; Artz, Andrew S.; Brunstein, Claudio G.; McNiece, Ian K.; Milano, Filippo; Abid, Muhammad Bilal; Chee, Lynette; et al. (Elsevier B.V., 2021-09-08)
      The in vivo depletion of recipient and donor T lymphocytes using antithymocyte globulin (ATG; Thymoglobulin) is widely adopted in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) to reduce the incidence of both graft failure and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). However, excess toxicity to donor lymphocytes may hamper immune reconstitution, compromising antitumor effects and increasing infection. Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) administered early after HCT may increase ATG-mediated lymphotoxicity. This study aimed to investigate the effect of an interaction between ATG and post-transplantation granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) on allogeneic HCT outcomes, using the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR) registry. We studied patients age ≥18 years with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) who received Thymoglobulin-containing preparative regimens for HLA-matched sibling/unrelated or mismatched unrelated donor HCT between 2010 and 2018. The effect of planned G-CSF that was started between pretransplantation day 3 and post-transplantation day 12 was studied in comparison with transplantations that did not include G-CSF. Cox regression models were built to identify risk factors associated with outcomes at 1 year after transplantation. A total of 874 patients met the study eligibility criteria, of whom 459 (53%) received planned G-CSF. HCT with planned G-CSF was associated with a significantly increased risk for nonrelapse mortality (NRM) (hazard ratio [HR] 2.03; P <.0001; 21% versus 12%) compared to HCT without G-CSF. The 6-month incidence of viral infection was higher with G-CSF (56% versus 47%; P = .007), with a particular increase in Epstein-Barr virus infections (19% versus 11%; P = .002). The observed higher NRM with planned G-CSF led to lower overall survival (HR, 1.52; P = .0005; 61% versus 72%). There was no difference in GVHD risk between the treatment groups. We performed 2 subgroup analyses showing that our findings held true in patients age ≥50 years and in centers where G-CSF was used in some, but not all, patients. In allogeneic peripheral blood HCT performed with Thymoglobulin for AML and MDS, G-CSF administered early post-transplantation resulted in a 2-fold increase in NRM and a 10% absolute decrement in survival. The use of planned G-CSF in the early post-transplantation period should be carefully considered on an individual patient basis, weighing any perceived benefits against these risks. © 2021 The American Society for Transplantation and Cellular Therapy