• PARP1 PARylates and stabilizes STAT5 in FLT3-ITD acute myeloid leukemia and other STAT5-activated cancers

      Dellomo, Anna J; Abbotts, Rachel; Eberly, Christian L; Karbowski, Mariusz; Baer, Maria R; Kingsbury, Tami J; Rassool, Feyruz V (Elsevier Inc., 2021-11-19)
      Signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) signaling plays a pathogenic role in both hematologic malignancies and solid tumors. In acute myeloid leukemia (AML), internal tandem duplications of fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3-ITD) constitutively activate the FLT3 receptor, producing aberrant STAT5 signaling, driving cell survival and proliferation. Understanding STAT5 regulation may aid development of new treatment strategies in STAT5-activated cancers including FLT3-ITD AML. Poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP1), upregulated in FLT3-ITD AML, is primarily known as a DNA repair factor, but also regulates a diverse range of proteins through PARylation. Analysis of STAT5 protein sequence revealed putative PARylation sites and we demonstrate a novel PARP1 interaction and direct PARylation of STAT5 in FLT3-ITD AML. Moreover, PARP1 depletion and PARylation inhibition decreased STAT5 protein expression and activity via increased degradation, suggesting that PARP1 PARylation of STAT5 at least in part potentiates aberrant signaling by stabilizing STAT5 protein in FLT3-ITD AML. Importantly for translational significance, PARPis are cytotoxic in numerous STAT5-activated cancer cells and are synergistic with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) in both TKI-sensitive and TKI-resistant FLT3-ITD AML. Therefore, PARPi may have therapeutic benefit in STAT5-activated and therapy-resistant leukemias and solid tumors.
    • Pharmacologic Induction of BRCAness in -Proficient Cancers: Expanding PARP Inhibitor Use.

      Abbotts, Rachel; Dellomo, Anna J; Rassool, Feyruz V (MDPI AG, 2022-05-26)
      The poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) family of proteins has been implicated in numerous cellular processes, including DNA repair, translation, transcription, telomere maintenance, and chromatin remodeling. Best characterized is PARP1, which plays a central role in the repair of single strand DNA damage, thus prompting the development of small molecule PARP inhibitors (PARPi) with the intent of potentiating the genotoxic effects of DNA damaging agents such as chemo- and radiotherapy. However, preclinical studies rapidly uncovered tumor-specific cytotoxicity of PARPi in a subset of cancers carrying mutations in the BReast CAncer 1 and 2 genes (BRCA1/2), which are defective in the homologous recombination (HR) DNA repair pathway, and several PARPi are now FDA-approved for single agent treatment in BRCA-mutated tumors. This phenomenon, termed synthetic lethality, has now been demonstrated in tumors harboring a number of repair gene mutations that produce a BRCA-like impairment of HR (also known as a 'BRCAness' phenotype). However, BRCA mutations or BRCAness is present in only a small subset of cancers, limiting PARPi therapeutic utility. Fortunately, it is now increasingly recognized that many small molecule agents, targeting a variety of molecular pathways, can induce therapeutic BRCAness as a downstream effect of activity. This review will discuss the potential for targeting a broad range of molecular pathways to therapeutically induce BRCAness and PARPi synthetic lethality.