• The Gene Ontology resource: Enriching a GOld mine

      Carbon, S.; Chibucos, M.; Giglio, M.; Nadendla, S.; Munro, J.; Jackson, R.; Gene Ontology Consortium (Oxford University Press, 2020-12-08)
      The Gene Ontology Consortium (GOC) provides the most comprehensive resource currently available for computable knowledge regarding the functions of genes and gene products. Here, we report the advances of the consortium over the past two years. The new GO-CAM annotation framework was notably improved, and we formalized the model with a computational schema to check and validate the rapidly increasing repository of 2838 GO-CAMs. In addition, we describe the impacts of several collaborations to refine GO and report a 10% increase in the number of GO annotations, a 25% increase in annotated gene products, and over 9,400 new scientific articles annotated. As the project matures, we continue our efforts to review older annotations in light of newer findings, and, to maintain consistency with other ontologies. As a result, 20 000 annotations derived from experimental data were reviewed, corresponding to 2.5% of experimental GO annotations. The website (http://geneontology.org) was redesigned for quick access to documentation, downloads and tools. To maintain an accurate resource and support traceability and reproducibility, we have made available a historical archive covering the past 15 years of GO data with a consistent format and file structure for both the ontology and annotations. Copyright The Author(s) 2020. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted reuse, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
    • Signature of adaptive evolution in olfactory receptor genes in Cory’s Shearwater supports molecular basis for smell in procellariiform seabirds

      Chibucos, M.; Munro, J.B.; Daugherty, S.; Silva, J.C. (Nature Research, 2020)
      Olfactory receptors (ORs), encoded by the largest vertebrate multigene family, enable the detection of thousands of unique odorants in the environment and consequently play a critical role in species survival. Here, we advance our knowledge of OR gene evolution in procellariiform seabirds, an avian group which relies on the sense of olfaction for critical ecological functions. We built a cosmid library of Cory’s Shearwater (Calonectris borealis) genomic DNA, a model species for the study of olfaction-based navigation, and sequence OR gene-positive cosmid clones with a combination of sequencing technologies. We identified 220 OR open reading frames, 20 of which are full length, intact OR genes, and found a large ratio of partial and pseudogenes to intact OR genes (2:1), suggestive of a dynamic mode of evolution. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that while a few genes cluster with those of other sauropsid species in a γ (gamma) clade that predates the divergence of different avian lineages, most genes belong to an avian-specific γ-c clade, within which sequences cluster by species, suggesting frequent duplication and/or gene conversion events. We identified evidence of positive selection on full length γ-c clade genes. These patterns are consistent with a key role of adaptation in the functional diversification of olfactory receptor genes in a bird lineage that relies extensively on olfaction. Copyright 2020, The Author(s).