• Emergency Management of Pelvic Bleeding

      Frassini, Simone; Gupta, Shailvi; Granieri, Stefano; Cimbanassi, Stefania; Sammartano, Fabrizio; Chiara, Osvaldo; Scalea, Thomas (MDPI AG, 2021-01-01)
      Pelvic trauma continues to have a high mortality rate despite damage control techniques for bleeding control. The aim of our study was to evaluate how Extra-peritoneal Pelvic Packing (EPP) and Resuscitative Endovascular Balloon Occlusion of the Aorta (REBOA) impact the efficacy on mortality and hemodynamic impact. We retrospectively evaluated patients who sustained blunt trauma, pelvic fracture and hemodynamic instability from 2002 to 2018. We excluded a concomitant severe brain injury, resuscitative thoracotomy, penetrating trauma and age below 14 years old. The study population was divided in EPP and REBOA Zone III group. Propensity score matching was used to adjust baseline differences and then a one-to-one matched analysis was performed. We selected 83 patients, 10 for group: survival rate was higher in EPP group, but not significantly in each outcome we analyzed (24 h, 7 day, overall). EPP had a significant increase in main arterial pressure after procedure (+20.13 mmHg, p < 0.001), but this was not as great as the improvement seen in the REBOA group (+45.10 mmHg, p < 0.001). EPP and REBOA are effective and improve hemodynamic status: both are reasonable first steps in a multidisciplinary management. Zone I REBOA may be useful in patients 'in extremis condition' with multiple sites of torso hemorrhage, particularly those in extremis.
    • Predictive Factors for Massive Transfusion in Trauma: A Novel Clinical Score from an Italian Trauma Center and German Trauma Registry

      Cornero, Sara Giulia; Maegele, Marc; Lefering, Rolf; Abbati, Claudia; Gupta, Shailvi; Sammartano, Fabrizio; Cimbanassi, Stefania; Chiara, Osvaldo (MDPI AG, 2020-10-10)
      Early management of critical bleeding and coagulopathy can improve patient survival. The aim of our study was to identify independent predictors of critical bleeding and to build a clinical score for early risk stratification. A prospective analysis was performed on a cohort of trauma patients with at least one hypotensive episode during pre-hospital (PH) care or in the Emergency Department (ED). Patients who received massive transfusion (MT+) (≥4 blood units during the first hour) were compared to those who did not (MT−). Hemodynamics, Glagow Coma Score (GCS), diagnostics and blood tests were evaluated. Using multivariate analysis, we created and validated a predictive score for MT+ patients. The predictive score was validated on a matched cohort of patients of the German Trauma Registry TR-DGU. One hundred thirty-nine patients were included. Independent predictors of MT+ included a prehospital (PH) GCS of 3, PH administration of tranexamic acid, hypotension and tachycardia upon admission, coagulopathy and injuries with significant bleeding such as limb amputation, hemoperitoneum, pelvic fracture, massive hemothorax. The derived predictive score revealed an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.854. Massive transfusion is essential to damage control resuscitation. Altered GCS, unstable hemodynamics, coagulopathy and bleeding injuries can allow early identification of patients at risk for critical hemorrhage. © 2020 by the authors.
    • Resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) in patients with major trauma and uncontrolled haemorrhagic shock: a systematic review with meta-analysis

      Castellini, Greta; Gianola, Silvia; Biffi, Annalisa; Porcu, Gloria; Fabbri, Andrea; Ruggieri, Maria Pia; Coniglio, Carlo; Napoletano, Antonello; Coclite, Daniela; D'Angelo, Daniela; et al. (Springer Nature, 2021-08-12)
      Background: Multiple studies regarding the use of Resuscitative Endovascular Balloon Occlusion of the Aorta (REBOA) in patients with non-compressible torso injuries and uncontrolled haemorrhagic shock were recently published. To date, the clinical evidence of the efficacy of REBOA is still debated. We aimed to conduct a systematic review assessing the clinical efficacy and safety of REBOA in patients with major trauma and uncontrolled haemorrhagic shock. Methods: We systematically searched MEDLINE (PubMed), EMBASE and CENTRAL up to June 2020. All randomized controlled trials and observational studies that investigated the use of REBOA compared to resuscitative thoracotomy (RT) with/without REBOA or no-REBOA were eligible. We followed the PRISMA and MOOSE guidelines. Two authors independently extracted data and appraised the risk of bias of included studies. Effect sizes were pooled in a meta-analysis using random-effects models. The quality of evidence was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation methodology. Primary outcomes were mortality, volume of infused blood components, health-related quality of life, time to haemorrhage control and any adverse effects. Secondary outcomes were improvement in haemodynamic status and failure/success of REBOA technique. Results: We included 11 studies (5866 participants) ranging from fair to good quality. REBOA was associated with lower mortality when compared to RT (aOR 0.38; 95% CI 0.20-0.74), whereas no difference was observed when REBOA was compared to no-REBOA (aOR 1.40; 95% CI 0.79-2.46). No significant difference in health-related quality of life between REBOA and RT (p = 0.766). The most commonly reported complications were amputation, haematoma and pseudoaneurysm. Sparse data and heterogeneity of reporting for all other outcomes prevented any estimate. Conclusions: Our findings on overall mortality suggest a positive effect of REBOA among non-compressible torso injuries when compared to RT but no differences compared to no-REBOA. Variability in indications and patient characteristics prevents any conclusion deserving further investigation. REBOA should be promoted in specific training programs in an experimental setting in order to test its effectiveness and a randomized trial should be planned.