• Id1 and PD-1 Combined Blockade Impairs Tumor Growth and Survival of -mutant Lung Cancer by Stimulating PD-L1 Expression and Tumor Infiltrating CD8 T Cells.

      Baraibar, Iosune; Roman, Marta; Rodríguez-Remírez, María; López, Inés; Vilalta, Anna; Guruceaga, Elisabeth; Ecay, Margarita; Collantes, María; Lozano, Teresa; Alignani, Diego; et al. (MDPI AG, 2020-10-28)
      The use of PD-1/PD-L1 checkpoint inhibitors in advanced NSCLC is associated with longer survival. However, many patients do not benefit from PD-1/PD-L1 blockade, largely because of immunosuppression. New immunotherapy-based combinations are under investigation in an attempt to improve outcomes. Id1 (inhibitor of differentiation 1) is involved in immunosuppression. In this study, we explored the potential synergistic effect of the combination of Id1 inhibition and pharmacological PD-L1 blockade in three different syngeneic murine KRAS-mutant lung adenocarcinoma models. TCGA analysis demonstrated a negative and statistically significant correlation between PD-L1 and Id1 expression levels. This observation was confirmed in vitro in human and murine KRAS-driven lung cancer cell lines. In vivo experiments in KRAS-mutant syngeneic and metastatic murine lung adenocarcinoma models showed that the combined blockade targeting Id1 and PD-1 was more effective than each treatment alone in terms of tumor growth impairment and overall survival improvement. Mechanistically, multiplex quantification of CD3+/CD4+/CD8+ T cells and flow cytometry analysis showed that combined therapy favors tumor infiltration by CD8+ T cells, whilst in vivo CD8+ T cell depletion led to tumor growth restoration. Co-culture assays using CD8+ cells and tumor cells showed that T cells present a higher antitumor effect when tumor cells lack Id1 expression. These findings highlight that Id1 blockade may contribute to a significant immune enhancement of antitumor efficacy of PD-1 inhibitors by increasing PD-L1 expression and harnessing tumor infiltration of CD8+ T lymphocytes.
    • Overcoming TKI resistance in fusion-driven NSCLC: New generation inhibitors and rationale for combination strategies

      Russo, Alessandro; Cardona, Andrés F.; Caglevic, Christian; Manca, Paolo; Ruiz-Patiño, Alejandro; Arrieta, Oscar; Rolfo, Christian (AME Publishing Company, 2020-12-01)
      During the last several years, multiple gene rearrangements with oncogenic potential have been described in NSCLC, identifying specific clinic-pathological subgroups of patients that benefit from a targeted therapeutic approach, including anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), c-ros protooncogene 1 (ROS1) and, more recently, REarranged during Transfection (RET) and neurotrophic tyrosine receptor kinases (NTRK) genes. Despite initial impressive antitumor activity, the use of targeted therapies in oncogene-addicted NSCLC subgroups is invariably associated with the development of acquired resistance through multiple mechanisms that can include both on-target and off-target mechanisms. However, the process of acquired resistance is a rapidly evolving clinical scenario that constantly evolves under the selective pressure of tyrosine kinase inhibitors. The development of increasingly higher selective and potent inhibitors, traditionally used to overcome resistance to first generation inhibitors, is associated with the development of novel mechanisms of resistance that encompass complex resistance mutations, highly recalcitrant to available TKIs, and bypass track mechanisms. Herein, we provide a comprehensive overview on the therapeutic strategies for overcoming acquired resistance to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) targeting the most well-established oncogenic gene fusions in advanced NSCLC, including ALK, ROS1, RET, and NTRK rearrangements. © Translational Lung Cancer Research.