• Nanoparticle-Based Fluoroionophore for Analysis of Potassium Ion Dynamics in 3D Tissue Models and In Vivo

      Zhdanov, A.V.; Borisov, S.M.; Mueller, B.J. (Wiley-VCH Verlag, 2018)
      The imaging of real-time fluxes of K+ ions in live cell with high dynamic range (5-150 mM) is of paramount importance for neuroscience and physiology of the gastrointestinal tract, kidney and other tissues. In particular, the research on high-performance deep-red fluorescent nanoparticle-based biosensors is highly anticipated. We found that BODIPY-based FI3 K+-sensitive fluoroionophore encapsulated in cationic polymer RL100 nanoparticles displays unusually strong efficiency in staining of broad spectrum of cell models, such as primary neurons and intestinal organoids. Using comparison of brightness, photostability and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) we confirmed that FI3 nanoparticles display distinctively superior intracellular staining compared to the free dye. We evaluated FI3 nanoparticles in real-time live cell imaging and found that it is highly useful for monitoring intra- and extracellular K+ dynamics in cultured neurons. Proof-of-concept in vivo brain imaging confirmed applicability of the biosensor for visualization of epileptic seizures. Collectively, this data makes fluoroionophore FI3 a versatile cross-platform fluorescent biosensor, broadly compatible with diverse experimental models and that crown ether-based polymer nanoparticles can provide a new venue for design of efficient fluorescent probes. Copyright 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim