• The Non-Specific Drp1 Inhibitor Mdivi-1 Has Modest Biochemical Antioxidant Activity

      Bordt, Evan A.; Zhang, Naibo; Waddell, Jaylyn; Polster, Brian M. (MDPI AG, 2022-03-01)
      Mitochondrial division inhibitor-1 (mdivi-1), a non-specific inhibitor of Drp1-dependent mi-tochondrial fission, is neuroprotective in numerous preclinical disease models. These include rodent models of Alzheimer’s disease and ischemic or traumatic brain injury. Among its Drp1-independent actions, the compound was found to suppress mitochondrial Complex I-dependent respiration but with less resultant mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) emission compared with the classical Complex I inhibitor rotenone. We employed two different methods of quantifying Trolox-equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) to test the prediction that mdivi-1 can directly scavenge free radicals. Mdivi-1 exhibited moderate antioxidant activity in the 2,2′-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline 6-sulfonate) (ABTS) assay. Half-maximal ABTS radical depletion was observed at ~25 µM mdivi-1, equivalent to that achieved by ~12.5 µM Trolox. Mdivi-1 also showed antioxidant activity in the α, α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. However, mdivi-1 exhibited a reduced capacity to deplete the DPPH radical, which has a more sterically hindered radical site compared with ABTS, with 25 µM mdivi-1 displaying only 0.8 µM Trolox equivalency. Both assays indicate that mdivi-1 possesses biochemical antioxidant activity but with modest potency relative to the vitamin E analog Trolox. Future studies are needed to evaluate whether the ability of mdivi-1 to directly scavenge free radicals contributes to its mechanisms of neuroprotection. © 2022 by the authors.