• Breast cancer tissue markers, genomic profiling, and other prognostic factors: A primer for radiologists

      Tirada, N.; Aujero, M.; Khorjekar, G. (Radiological Society of North America Inc., 2018)
      An understanding of prognostic factors in breast cancer is imperative for guiding patient care. Increased tumor size and more advanced nodal status are established independent prognostic factors of poor outcomes and are incorporated into the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) TNM (primary tumor, regional lymph node, distant metastasis) staging system. However, other factors including imaging findings, histologic evaluation results, and molecular findings can have a direct effect on a patient's prognosis, including risk of recurrence and relative survival. Several microarray panels for gene profiling of tumors are approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and endorsed by the American Society of Clinical Oncology. This article highlights prognostic factors currently in use for individualizing and guiding breast cancer therapy and is divided into four sections. The first section addresses patient considerations, in which modifiable and nonmodifiable prognostic factors including age, race and ethnicity, and lifestyle factors are discussed. The second part is focused on imaging considerations such as multicentric and/or multifocal disease, an extensive intraductal component, and skin or chest wall involvement and their effect on treatment and prognosis. The third section is about histopathologic findings such as the grade and presence of lymphovascular invasion. Last, tumor biomarkers and tumor biology are discussed, namely hormone receptors, proliferative markers, and categorization of tumors into four recognized molecular subtypes including luminal A, luminal B, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-enriched, and triple-negative tumors. By understanding the clinical effect of these prognostic factors, radiologists, along with a multidisciplinary team, can use these tools to achieve individualized patient care and to improve patient outcomes. Copyright RSNA, 2018.