• The development of lived experience-centered word clouds to support research uncertainty gathering in degenerative cervical myelopathy: results from an engagement process and protocol for their evaluation, via a nested randomized controlled trial

      Davies, Benjamin M; Mowforth, Oliver D; Khan, Danyal Z; Yang, Xiaoyu; Stacpoole, Sybil R L; Hazenbiller, Olesja; Gronlund, Toto; Tetreault, Lindsay; Kalsi-Ryan, Sukhvinder; Starkey, Michelle L; et al. (Springer Nature, 2021-06-25)
      Objectives: AO Spine REsearch objectives and Common Data Elements for Degenerative Cervical Myelopathy [RECODE-DCM] is a multi-stakeholder consensus process aiming to promote research efficiency in DCM. It aims to establish the top 10 research uncertainties, through a James Lind Alliance Priority Setting Partnership [PSP]. Through a consensus process, research questions are generated and ranked. The inclusion of people with cervical myelopathy [PwCM] is central to the process. We hypothesized that presenting PwCM experience through word cloud generation would stimulate other key stakeholders to generate research questions better aligned with PwCM needs. This protocol outlines our plans to evaluate this as a nested methodological study within our PSP. Methods: An online poll asked PwCM to submit and vote on words associated with aspects of DCM. After review, a refined word list was re-polled for voting and word submission. Word clouds were generated and an implementation plan for AO Spine RECODE-DCM PSP surveys was subsequently developed. Results: Seventy-nine terms were submitted after the first poll. Eighty-seven refined words were then re-polled (which added a further 39 words). Four word clouds were generated under the categories of diagnosis, management, long-term effects, and other. A 1:1 block randomization protocol to assess word cloud impact on the number and relevance of PSP research questions was generated. Conclusions: We have shown it is feasible to work with PwCM to generate a tool for the AO Spine RECODE-DCM nested methodological study. Once the survey stage is completed, we will be able to evaluate the impact of the word clouds. Further research will be needed to assess the value of any impact in terms of stimulating a more creative research agenda.
    • Efficacy of Early (≤ 24 Hours), Late (25-72 Hours), and Delayed (>72 Hours) Surgery with Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Confirmed Decompression in American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale Grades C and D Acute Traumatic Central Cord Syndrome Caused by Spinal Stenosis

      Aarabi, Bizhan; Akhtar-Danesh, Noori; Simard, J Marc; Chryssikos, Timothy; Shanmuganathan, Kathirkamanathan; Olexa, Joshua; Sansur, Charles A; Crandall, Kenneth M; Wessell, Aaron P; Cannarsa, Gregory; et al. (Mary Ann Liebert Inc., 2021-07-15)
      The therapeutic significance of timing of decompression in acute traumatic central cord syndrome (ATCCS) caused by spinal stenosis remains unsettled. We retrospectively examined a homogenous cohort of patients with ATCCS and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) evidence of post-treatment spinal cord decompression to determine whether timing of decompression played a significant role in American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) motor score (AMS) 6 months following trauma. We used the t test, analysis of variance, Pearson correlation coefficient, and multiple regression for statistical analysis. During a 19-year period, 101 patients with ATCCS, admission ASIA Impairment Scale (AIS) grades C and D, and an admission AMS of ≤95 were surgically decompressed. Twenty-four of 101 patients had an AIS grade C injury. Eighty-two patients were males, the mean age of patients was 57.9 years, and 69 patients had had a fall. AMS at admission was 68.3 (standard deviation [SD] 23.4); upper extremities (UE) 28.6 (SD 14.7), and lower extremities (LE) 41.0 (SD 12.7). AMS at the latest follow-up was 93.1 (SD 12.8), UE 45.4 (SD 7.6), and LE 47.9 (SD 6.6). Mean number of stenotic segments was 2.8, mean canal compromise was 38.6% (SD 8.7%), and mean intramedullary lesion length (IMLL) was 23 mm (SD 11). Thirty-six of 101 patients had decompression within 24 h, 38 patients had decompression between 25 and 72 h, and 27 patients had decompression >72 h after injury. Demographics, etiology, AMS, AIS grade, morphometry, lesion length, surgical technique, steroid protocol, and follow-up AMS were not statistically different between groups treated at different times. We analyzed the effect size of timing of decompression categorically and in a continuous fashion. There was no significant effect of the timing of decompression on follow-up AMS. Only AMS at admission determined AMS at follow-up (coefficient = 0.31; 95% confidence interval [CI]:0.21; p = 0.001). We conclude that timing of decompression in ATCCS caused by spinal stenosis has little bearing on ultimate AMS at follow-up.
    • Longitudinal Impact of Acute Spinal Cord Injury on Clinical Pharmacokinetics of Riluzole, a Potential Neuroprotective Agent

      Nguyen, Ashley; Chow, Diana S-L; Wu, Lei; Teng, Yang Angela; Sarkar, Mahua; Toups, Elizabeth G; Harrop, James S; Schmitt, Karl M; Johnson, Michele M; Guest, James D; et al. (Wiley-Blackwell, 2021-04-28)
      Riluzole, a benzothiazole sodium channel blocker that received US Food and Drug Administration approval to attenuate neurodegeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in 1995, was found to be safe and potentially efficacious in a spinal cord injury (SCI) population, as evident in a phase I clinical trial. The acute and progressive nature of traumatic SCI and the complexity of secondary injury processes can alter the pharmacokinetics of therapeutics. A 1-compartment with first-order elimination population pharmacokinetic model for riluzole incorporating time-dependent clearance and volume of distribution was developed from combined data of the phase 1 and the ongoing phase 2/3 trials. This change in therapeutic exposure may lead to a biased estimate of the exposure-response relationship when evaluating therapeutic effects. With the developed model, a rational, optimal dosing scheme can be designed with time-dependent modification that preserves the required therapeutic exposure of riluzole. © 2021 The Authors..