Participation and Effectiveness of Worksite Health Promotion Program
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AbstractBackground: Worksite Health Promotion Programs (WHPPs) are limited by low participation and engagement. However, little is known about what factors influence participation and the relationship between participation and changes in body weight and composition. Mobile health technology (mHealth) may facilitate participation and engagement in WHPPs as mhealth is not limited by time or location, which are known barriers to participation and engagement. Yet, few studies have examined the use and effectiveness of WHPPs using mHealth interventions that aimed to change body weight and composition. Purpose: To explore the features and effectiveness of WHPPs in previous studies that used mHealth interventions. To identify factors influencing participation and engagement in a WHPP and the relationship between participation and changes in body weight and composition. Methods: A systematic literature review was conducted to explore features of WHPPs using mHealth that aimed to change body weight and composition. A secondary data analysis was conducted using data obtained from participants in the intervention group of a WHPP to identify: 1) factors that influence participation and engagement and 2) the relationship between participation and body weight and composition changes. Results: From the systematic review, 10 out of 12 WHPP studies using mHealth significantly improved body weight and composition. The most commonly used mHealth interventions were providing information, goal setting, and data entry. Based on the secondary data analysis, low levels of stress, anxiety, or high job satisfaction were significantly related to high participation in a WHPP. Significant relationships between participation and body weight and composition changes were not found due to a small sample size. However, this study found that those who reduced five pounds of body weight at six months among overweight or obese participants showed high participation in physical activity and/or diet components of a WHPP. Conclusions: WHPPs using mHealth can significantly improve body weight and composition. Employees’ psychological factors should be considered to increase participation in WHPPs. Further studies with larger sample size are needed to identify the relationship between participation and changes in body weight or body composition.
University of Maryland, Baltimore